A Caltech Library Service

The United States COVID-19 Forecast Hub dataset

Cramer, Estee Y. and Huang, Yuxin and Wang, Yijin and Ray, Evan L. and Cornell, Matthew and Bracher, Johannes and Brennen, Andrea and Castro Rivadeneira, Alvaro J. and Gerding, Aaron and House, Katie and Jayawardena, Dasuni and Kanji, Abdul H. and Khandelwal, Ayush and Le, Khoa and Niemi, Jarad and Stark, Ariane and Shah, Apurv and Wattanachit, Nutcha and Zorn, Martha W. and Reich, Nicholas G. and Abu-Mostafa, Yaser S. and Bathwal, Rahil and Chang, Nicholas A. and Chitta, Pavan and Erickson, Anne and Goel, Sumit and Gowda, Jethin and Jin, Qixuan and Jo, HyeongChan and Kim, Juhyun and Kulkarni, Pranav and Lushtak, Samuel M. and Mann, Ethan and Popken, Max and Soohoo, Connor and Tirumala, Kushal and Tseng, Albert and Varadarajan, Vignesh and Vytheeswaran, Jagath and Wang, Christopher and Yeluri, Akshay and Yurk, Dominic and Zhang, Michael and Zlokapa, Alexander (2021) The United States COVID-19 Forecast Hub dataset. . (Unpublished)

[img] PDF - Submitted Version
Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication.


Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


Academic researchers, government agencies, industry groups, and individuals have produced forecasts at an unprecedented scale during the COVID-19 pandemic. To leverage these forecasts, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) partnered with an academic research lab at the University of Massachusetts Amherst to create the US COVID-19 Forecast Hub. Launched in April 2020, the Forecast Hub is a dataset with point and probabilistic forecasts of incident hospitalizations, incident cases, incident deaths, and cumulative deaths due to COVID-19 at national, state, and county levels in the United States. Included forecasts represent a variety of modeling approaches, data sources, and assumptions regarding the spread of COVID-19. The goal of this dataset is to establish a standardized and comparable set of short-term forecasts from modeling teams. These data can be used to develop ensemble models, communicate forecasts to the public, create visualizations, compare models, and inform policies regarding COVID-19 mitigation. These open-source data are available via download from GitHub, through an online API, and through R packages.

Item Type:Report or Paper (Discussion Paper)
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper ItemUNSPECIFIED
Cramer, Estee Y.0000-0003-1373-3177
Bracher, Johannes0000-0002-3777-1410
Niemi, Jarad0000-0002-5079-158X
Reich, Nicholas G.0000-0003-3503-9899
Additional Information:The copyright holder for this preprint is the author/funder, who has granted medRxiv a license to display the preprint in perpetuity. This article is a US Government work. It is not subject to copyright under 17 USC 105 and is also made available for use under a CC0 license. This version posted November 4, 2021. For teams that reported receiving funding for their work, we report the sources and disclosures below: AIpert-pwllnod: Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada; Caltech-CS156: Gary Clinard Innovation Fund; CEID-Walk: University of Georgia; CMU-TimeSeries: CDC Center of Excellence, gifts from Google and Facebook; COVIDhub: This work has been supported by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1U01IP001122) and the National Institutes of General Medical Sciences (R35GM119582). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of CDC, NIGMS or the National Institutes of Health; Johannes Bracher was supported by the Helmholtz Foundation via the SIMCARD Information & Data Science Pilot Project; Tilmann Gneiting gratefully acknowledges support by the Klaus Tschira Foundation; CU-select: NSF DMS-2027369 and a gift from the Morris-Singer Foundation; DDS-NBDS: NSF III-1812699; epiforecasts-ensemble1: Wellcome Trust (210758/Z/18/Z) FDANIHASU: supported by the Intramural Research Program of the NIH/NIDDK; GT_CHHS-COVID19: William W. George Endowment, Virginia C. and Joseph C. Mello Endowment, NSF DGE-1650044, NSF MRI 1828187, research cyberinfrastructure resources and services provided by the Partnership for an Advanced Computing Environment (PACE) at Georgia Tech, and the following benefactors at Georgia Tech: Andrea Laliberte, Joseph C. Mello, Richard Rick E. & Charlene Zalesky, and Claudia & Paul Raines, CDC MInD-Healthcare U01CK000531-Supplement; IHME: This work was supported by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, as well as funding from the state of Washington and the National Science Foundation (award no. FAIN: 2031096); Imperial-ensemble1: SB acknowledges funding from the Wellcome Trust (219415); Institute of Business Forecasting: IBF; IowaStateLW-STEM: NSF DMS-1916204, Iowa State University Plant Sciences Institute Scholars Program, NSF DMS-1934884, Laurence H. Baker Center for Bioinformatics and Biological Statistics; IUPUI CIS: NSF; JHU_CSSE-DECOM: JHU CSSE: National Science Foundation (NSF) RAPID Real-time Forecasting of COVID-19 risk in the USA. 2021-2022. Award ID: 2108526. National Science Foundation (NSF) RAPID Development of an interactive web-based dashboard to track COVID-19 in real-time. 2020. Award ID: 2028604; JHU_IDD-CovidSP: State of California, US Dept of Health and Human Services, US Dept of Homeland Security, Johns Hopkins Health System, Office of the Dean at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University Modeling and Policy Hub, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (5U01CK000538-03), University of Utah Immunology, Inflammation, & Infectious Disease Initiative (26798 Seed Grant); JHU_UNC_GAS-StatMechPool: NIH NIGMS: R01GM140564; JHUAPL-Bucky: US Dept of Health and Human Services; KITmetricslab-select_ensemble: Daniel Wolffram gratefully acknowledges support by the Klaus Tschira Foundation; LANL-GrowthRate: LANL LDRD 20200700ER; MIT-Cassandra: MIT Quest for Intelligence; MOBS-GLEAM_COVID: COVID Supplement CDC-HHS-6U01IP001137-01; CA NU38OT000297 from the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE); NotreDame-FRED: NSF RAPID DEB 2027718; NotreDame-mobility: NSF RAPID DEB 2027718; PSI-DRAFT: NSF RAPID Grant # 2031536; QJHong-Encounter: NSF DMR-2001411 and DMR-1835939; SDSC_ISG-TrendModel: The development of the dashboard was partly funded by the Fondation Privee des Hopitaux Universitaires de Geneve; UA-EpiCovDA: NSF RAPID Grant # 2028401; UChicagoCHATTOPADHYAY-UnIT: Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) #HR00111890043/P00004 (I. Chattopadhyay, University of Chicago); UCSB-ACTS: NSF RAPID IIS 2029626; UCSD_NEU-DeepGLEAM: Google Faculty Award, W31P4Q-21-C-0014; UMass-MechBayes: NIGMS #R35GM119582, NSF #1749854, NIGMS #R35GM119582; UMich-RidgeTfReg: This project is funded by the University of Michigan Physics Department and the University of Michigan Office of Research; UVA-Ensemble: National Institutes of Health (NIH) Grant 1R01GM109718, NSF BIG DATA Grant IIS-1633028, NSF Grant No.: OAC-1916805, NSF Expeditions in Computing Grant CCF-1918656, CCF-1917819, NSF RAPID CNS-2028004, NSF RAPID OAC-2027541, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 75D30119C05935, a grant from Google, University of Virginia Strategic Investment Fund award number SIF160, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) under Contract No. HDTRA1-19-D-0007, and Virginia Dept of Health Grant VDH-21-501-0141; Wadnwani_AI-BayesOpt: This study is made possible by the generous support of the American People through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The work described in this article was implemented under the TRACETB Project, managed by WIAI under the terms of Cooperative Agreement Number 72038620CA00006. The contents of this manuscript are the sole responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of USAID or the United States Government; WalmartLabsML-LogForecasting: Team acknowledges Walmart to support this study. Author Declarations: I confirm all relevant ethical guidelines have been followed, and any necessary IRB and/or ethics committee approvals have been obtained. Yes. I confirm that all necessary patient/participant consent has been obtained and the appropriate institutional forms have been archived, and that any patient/participant/sample identifiers included were not known to anyone (e.g., hospital staff, patients or participants themselves) outside the research group so cannot be used to identify individuals. Yes. I understand that all clinical trials and any other prospective interventional studies must be registered with an ICMJE-approved registry, such as I confirm that any such study reported in the manuscript has been registered and the trial registration ID is provided (note: if posting a prospective study registered retrospectively, please provide a statement in the trial ID field explaining why the study was not registered in advance). Yes. I have followed all appropriate research reporting guidelines and uploaded the relevant EQUATOR Network research reporting checklist(s) and other pertinent material as supplementary files, if applicable. Yes. Competing Interest Statement: AV, MC, and APP report grants from Metabiota Inc outside the submitted work. Data Availability: All data produced are available online at
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)UNSPECIFIED
Gary Clinard Innovation FundUNSPECIFIED
University of GeorgiaUNSPECIFIED
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)1U01IP001122
Helmholtz FoundationUNSPECIFIED
SIMCARD Information and Data Science Pilot ProjectUNSPECIFIED
Klaus Tschira FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Morris-Singer FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Wellcome Trust210758/Z/18/Z
William W. George EndowmentUNSPECIFIED
Virginia C. and Joseph C. Mello EndowmentUNSPECIFIED
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)U01CK000531
Bill and Melinda Gates FoundationUNSPECIFIED
State of WashingtonUNSPECIFIED
Wellcome Trust219415
Institute of Business ForecastingUNSPECIFIED
Iowa State UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Laurence H. Baker Center for Bioinformatics and Biological StatisticsUNSPECIFIED
State of CaliforniaUNSPECIFIED
Department of Health and Human ServicesUNSPECIFIED
Department of Homeland SecurityUNSPECIFIED
Johns Hopkins University5U01CK000538-03
University of Utah26798
Klaus Tschira FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD)20200700ER
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)UNSPECIFIED
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)HHS-6U01IP001137-01
Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE)CA NU38OT000297
Fondation Privee des Hopitaux Universitaires de GeneveUNSPECIFIED
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)HR00111890043/P00004
Google Faculty Research AwardW31P4Q-21-C-0014
University of MichiganUNSPECIFIED
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)75D30119C05935
University of VirginiaSIF160
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)HDTRA1-19-D-0007
Virginia Department of HealthVDH-21-501-0141
United States Agency for International Development (USAID)UNSPECIFIED
TRACETB Project72038620CA00006
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20211105-194210514
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:The United States COVID-19 Forecast Hub dataset. Estee Y Cramer, Yuxin Huang, Yijin Wang, Evan L Ray, Matthew Cornell, Johannes Bracher, Andrea Brennen, Alvaro J Castro Rivadeneira, Aaron Gerding, Katie House, Dasuni Jayawardena, Abdul H Kanji, Ayush Khandelwal, Khoa Le, Jarad Niemi, Ariane Stark, Apurv Shah, Nutcha Wattanachit, Martha W Zorn, Nicholas G Reich, US COVID-19 Forecast Hub Consortium. medRxiv 2021.11.04.21265886; doi:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:111773
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:05 Nov 2021 21:12
Last Modified:05 Nov 2021 21:12

Repository Staff Only: item control page