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Less Than 1% of Core-collapse Supernovae in the Local Universe Occur in Elliptical Galaxies

Irani, I. and Prentice, S. J. and Schulze, S. and Gal-Yam, A. and Teffs, Jacob and Mazzali, Paolo and Sollerman, J. and Gonzalez, E. P. and Taggart, K. and De, Kishalay and Fremling, Christoffer and Perley, Daniel A. and Strotjohann, Nora L. and Kasliwal, Mansi M. and Howell, A. and Dhawan, S. and Tzanidakis, Anastasios and Hiramatsu, Daichi and Kool, Erik C. and Anderson, J. P. and Müller-Bravo, T. E. and Dekany, Richard and Gromadzki, Mariusz and Carini, Roberta and Galbany, L. and Drake, Andrew J. and Burke, Jamison and Pellegrino, Craig and Della Valle, Massimo and Medford, Michael S. and Rusholme, Ben and Young, D. R. and Gutiérrez, Claudia P. and Inserra, Cosimo and Omer, Rafia and Shupe, David L. and Chen, T.-W. and Shin, Kyung Min and Yaron, Ofer and McCully, Curtis and Nicholl, Matt and Riddle, Reed (2022) Less Than 1% of Core-collapse Supernovae in the Local Universe Occur in Elliptical Galaxies. Astrophysical Journal, 927 (1). Art. No. 10. ISSN 0004-637X.

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We present observations of three core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) in elliptical hosts, detected by the Zwicky Transient Facility Bright Transient Survey (BTS). SN 2019ape is a SN Ic that exploded in the main body of a typical elliptical galaxy. Its properties are consistent with an explosion of a regular SN Ic progenitor. A secondary g-band light-curve peak could indicate interaction of the ejecta with circumstellar material (CSM). An Hα-emitting source at the explosion site suggests a residual local star formation origin. SN 2018fsh and SN 2020uik are SNe II which exploded in the outskirts of elliptical galaxies. SN 2020uik shows typical spectra for SNe II, while SN 2018fsh shows a boxy nebular Hα profile, a signature of CSM interaction. We combine these 3 SNe with 7 events from the literature and analyze their hosts as a sample. We present multi-wavelength photometry of the hosts, and compare this to archival photometry of all BTS hosts. Using the spectroscopically complete BTS, we conclude that 0.3%^(+0.3)_(-0.1) of all CCSNe occur in elliptical galaxies. We derive star formation rates and stellar masses for the host galaxies and compare them to the properties of other SN hosts. We show that CCSNe in ellipticals have larger physical separations from their hosts compared to SNe Ia in elliptical galaxies, and discuss implications for star-forming activity in elliptical galaxies.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Irani, I.0000-0002-7996-8780
Prentice, S. J.0000-0003-0486-6242
Schulze, S.0000-0001-6797-1889
Gal-Yam, A.0000-0002-3653-5598
Teffs, Jacob0000-0001-8290-2881
Mazzali, Paolo0000-0001-6876-8284
Sollerman, J.0000-0003-1546-6615
Taggart, K.0000-0002-5748-4558
De, Kishalay0000-0002-8989-0542
Fremling, Christoffer0000-0002-4223-103X
Perley, Daniel A.0000-0001-8472-1996
Strotjohann, Nora L.0000-0002-4667-6730
Kasliwal, Mansi M.0000-0002-5619-4938
Dhawan, S.0000-0002-2376-6979
Tzanidakis, Anastasios0000-0003-0484-3331
Hiramatsu, Daichi0000-0002-1125-9187
Kool, Erik C.0000-0002-7252-3877
Anderson, J. P.0000-0003-0227-3451
Müller-Bravo, T. E.0000-0003-3939-7167
Dekany, Richard0000-0002-5884-7867
Gromadzki, Mariusz0000-0002-1650-1518
Carini, Roberta0000-0003-1604-2064
Galbany, L.0000-0002-1296-6887
Burke, Jamison0000-0003-0035-6659
Pellegrino, Craig0000-0002-7472-1279
Della Valle, Massimo0000-0003-3142-5020
Medford, Michael S.0000-0002-7226-0659
Rusholme, Ben0000-0001-7648-4142
Young, D. R.0000-0002-1229-2499
Gutiérrez, Claudia P.0000-0003-2375-2064
Inserra, Cosimo0000-0002-3968-4409
Shupe, David L.0000-0003-4401-0430
Chen, T.-W.0000-0002-1066-6098
Shin, Kyung Min0000-0002-1486-3582
Yaron, Ofer0000-0002-0301-8017
McCully, Curtis0000-0001-5807-7893
Nicholl, Matt0000-0002-2555-3192
Riddle, Reed0000-0002-0387-370X
Additional Information:© 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2021 October 5; revised 2021 December 12; accepted 2021 December 13; published 2022 March 2. A.G.Y.'s research is supported by the EU via ERC grant No. 725161, the ISF GW excellence center, an IMOS space infrastructure grant, and BSF/Transformative and GIF grants, as well as The Benoziyo Endowment Fund for the Advancement of Science, the Deloro Institute for Advanced Research in Space and Optics, The Veronika A. Rabl Physics Discretionary Fund, Minerva, Yeda-Sela and the Schwartz/Reisman Collaborative Science Program; A.G.Y. is the incumbent of The Arlyn Imberman Professorial Chair. NLS is funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) via the Walter Benjamin program461903330. This research has made use of the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED), which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Foscgui is a graphic user interface aimed at extracting SN spectroscopy and photometry obtained with FOSC-like instruments. It was developed by E. Cappellaro. A package description can be found at This work is based on observations obtained with the Samuel Oschin Telescope 48 inch and the 60 inch Telescope at the Palomar Observatory as part of the Zwicky Transient Facility project. ZTF is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST-1440341 and a collaboration including Caltech, IPAC, the Weizmann Institute for Science, the Oskar Klein Center at Stockholm University, the University of Maryland, the University of Washington, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron and Humboldt University, Los Alamos National Laboratories, the TANGO Consortium of Taiwan, the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories. Operations are conducted by COO, IPAC, and UW. Based on observations from the Las Cumbres Observatory network. The LCO team is supported by NSF grants AST-1911225 and AST-1911151 The Liverpool Telescope is operated on the island of La Palma by Liverpool John Moores University in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias with financial support from the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council. Partly based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. The SED Machine is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under grant No. 1106171. The ZTF forced-photometry service was funded under the Heising-Simons Foundation grant #12540303 (PI: Graham). The Legacy Surveys consist of three individual and complementary projects: the Dark Energy Camera Legacy Survey (DECaLS; Proposal ID #2014B-0404; PIs: David Schlegel and Arjun Dey), the Beijing-Arizona Sky Survey (BASS; NOAO Prop. ID #2015A-0801; PIs: Zhou Xu and Xiaohui Fan), and the Mayall z-band Legacy Survey (MzLS; Prop. ID #2016A-0453; PI: Arjun Dey). DECaLS, BASS and MzLS together include data obtained, respectively, at the Blanco telescope, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, NSF's NOIRLab; the Bok telescope, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona; and the Mayall telescope, Kitt Peak National Observatory, NOIRLab. The Legacy Surveys project is honored to be permitted to conduct astronomical research on Iolkam Du'ag (Kitt Peak), a mountain with particular significance to the Tohono O'odham Nation. BASS is a key project of the Telescope Access Program (TAP), which has been funded by the National Astronomical Observatories of China, the Chinese Academy of Sciences (the Strategic Priority Research Program The Emergence of Cosmological Structures Grant # XDB09000000), and the Special Fund for Astronomy from the Ministry of Finance. The BASS is also supported by the External Cooperation Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant # 114A11KYSB20160057), and Chinese National Natural Science Foundation (Grant # 11433005) This project has made use of data products from the Near-Earth Object Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (NEOWISE), which is a project of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology. NEOWISE is funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile, as part of ePESSTO/ePESSTO+ (the extended Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey for Transient Objects Survey) under ESO programmes 199.D-0143,1103.D-0328,106.216C.001/007,106.216C.002/008& 106.216C.003/009. This research has made use of the VizieR catalog access tool, CDS, Strasbourg, France (DOI:10.26093/cds/vizier). The original description of the VizieR service was published in 2000, A&AS 143, 23 This work has made use of data from the Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System (ATLAS) project. ATLAS is primarily funded to search for near Earth asteroids through NASA grants NN12AR55G, 80NSSC18K0284, and 80NSSC18K1575; by products of the NEO search include images and catalogs from the survey area. The ATLAS science products have been made possible through the contributions of the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy, the Queen's University Belfast, and the Space Telescope Science Institute. TMB was funded by the CONICYT PFCHA/DOCTORADOBECAS CHILE/2017-72180113. MN is supported by a Royal Astronomical Society Research Fellowship and by the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (grant agreement No. 948381 M.M.K. acknowledges generous support from the David and Lucille Packard Foundation. This work was supported by the GROWTH Marshal (Kasliwal et al. 2019) developed as part of the GROWTH (Global Relay of Observatories Watching Transients Happen) project funded by the National Science Foundation under grant No. 1545949. M.G. is supported by the EU Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No 101004719. L.G. acknowledges financial support from the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MICIU) under the 2019 Ramón y Cajal program RYC2019-027683 and from the Spanish MICIU project PID2020-115253GA-I00. T.-W.C. acknowledges the EU Funding under Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant H2020-MSCA-IF-2018-842471. E.C.K. acknowledges support from the G.R.E.A.T research environment funded by Vetenskapsrådet, the Swedish Research Council, under project number 2016-06012, and support from The Wenner-Gren Foundations. L.G. acknowledges financial support from the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MICIU) under the 2019 Ramón y Cajal program RYC2019-027683 and from the Spanish MICIU project PID2020-115253GA-I00.
Group:Astronomy Department, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), Zwicky Transient Facility
Funding AgencyGrant Number
European Research Council (ERC)725161
Israel Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science (Israel)UNSPECIFIED
Binational Science Foundation (USA-Israel)UNSPECIFIED
German-Israeli Foundation for Research and DevelopmentUNSPECIFIED
Benoziyo Endowment Fund for the Advancement of ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Deloro Institute for Advanced Research in Space and OpticsUNSPECIFIED
Veronika A. Rabl Physics Discretionary FundUNSPECIFIED
Schwartz/Reisman Collaborative Science ProgramUNSPECIFIED
Arlyn Imberman Professorial ChairUNSPECIFIED
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)461903330
ZTF partner institutionsUNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Heising-Simons Foundation12540303
National Astronomical Observatories of ChinaUNSPECIFIED
Chinese Academy of SciencesXDB09000000
Chinese Academy of Sciences114A11KYSB20160057
National Natural Science Foundation of China11433005
Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT)2017-72180113
Royal Astronomical SocietyUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)948381
David and Lucile Packard FoundationUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)101004719
Ramón y Cajal ProgrammeRYC2019-027683
Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades (MICIU)PID2020-115253GA-I00
Marie Curie Fellowship842471
Swedish Research Council2016-06012
Wenner-Gren FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Core-collapse supernovae; Early-type galaxies; Star formation
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Core-collapse supernovae (304); Early-type galaxies (429); Star formation (1569)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20211130-215713941
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:I. Irani et al 2022 ApJ 927 10
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:112104
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:02 Dec 2021 19:10
Last Modified:09 Mar 2022 19:28

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