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TOI-530b: A giant planet transiting an M dwarf detected by TESS

Gan, Tianjun and Lin, Zitao and Wang, Sharon Xuesong and Mao, Shude and Fouqué, Pascal and Fan, Jiahao and Bedell, Megan and Stassun, Keivan G. and Giacalone, Steven and Fukui, Akihiko and Murgas, Felipe and Ciardi, David R. and Howell, Steve B. and Collins, Karen A. and Shporer, Avi and Arnold, Luc and Barclay, Thomas and Charbonneau, David and Christiansen, Jessie and Crossfield, Ian J. M. and Dressing, Courtney D. and Elliott, Ashley and Esparza-Borges, Emma and Evans, Phil and Gnilka, Crystal L. and Gonzales, Erica J. and Howard, Andrew W. and Isogai, Keisuke and Kawauchi, Kiyoe and Kurita, Seiya and Liu, Beibei and Livingston, John H. and Matson, Rachel A. and Narita, Norio and Palle, Enric and Parviainen, Hannu and Rackham, Benjamin V. and Rodriguez, David R. and Rose, Mark and Rudat, Alexander and Schlieder, Joshua E. and Scott, Nicholas J. and Vezie, Michael and Ricker, George R. and Vanderspek, Roland and Latham, David W. and Seager, Sara and Winn, Joshua N. and Jenkins, Jon M. (2022) TOI-530b: A giant planet transiting an M dwarf detected by TESS. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 511 (1). pp. 83-99. ISSN 0035-8711. doi:10.1093/mnras/stab3708.

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We report the discovery of TOI-530b, a transiting Saturn-like planet around an M0.5V dwarf, delivered by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). The host star is located at a distance of 147.7 ± 0.6 pc with a radius of R* = 0.54 ± 0.03 R_⊙ and a mass of M* = 0.53 ± 0.02 M_⊙. We verify the planetary nature of the transit signals by combining ground-based multiwavelength photometry, high-resolution spectroscopy from SPIRou as well as high-angular-resolution imaging. With V = 15.4 mag, TOI-530b is orbiting one of the faintest stars accessible by ground-based spectroscopy. Our model reveals that TOI-530b has a radius of 0.83 ± 0.05 R_J and a mass of 0.37 ± 0.08 M_J on a 6.39-d orbit. TOI-530b is the sixth transiting giant planet hosted by an M-type star, which is predicted to be infrequent according to core accretion theory, making it a valuable object to further study the formation and migration history of similar planets. Furthermore, we identify a potential dearth of hot massive giant planets around M-dwarfs with separation distance smaller than 0.1 au and planet-to-star mass ratio between 2 × 10⁻³ and 10⁻². We also find a possible correlation between hot giant planet formation and the metallicity of its parent M-dwarf. We discuss the potential formation channel of such systems.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription Paper ItemData
Gan, Tianjun0000-0002-4503-9705
Wang, Sharon Xuesong0000-0002-6937-9034
Mao, Shude0000-0001-8317-2788
Fouqué, Pascal0000-0002-1436-7351
Bedell, Megan0000-0001-9907-7742
Stassun, Keivan G.0000-0002-3481-9052
Giacalone, Steven0000-0002-8965-3969
Fukui, Akihiko0000-0002-4909-5763
Murgas, Felipe0000-0001-9087-1245
Ciardi, David R.0000-0002-5741-3047
Howell, Steve B.0000-0002-2532-2853
Collins, Karen A.0000-0001-6588-9574
Shporer, Avi0000-0002-1836-3120
Arnold, Luc0000-0002-0111-1234
Barclay, Thomas0000-0001-7139-2724
Charbonneau, David0000-0002-9003-484X
Christiansen, Jessie0000-0002-8035-4778
Crossfield, Ian J. M.0000-0002-1835-1891
Dressing, Courtney D.0000-0001-8189-0233
Esparza-Borges, Emma0000-0002-2341-3233
Evans, Phil0000-0002-5674-2404
Gnilka, Crystal L.0000-0003-2519-6161
Gonzales, Erica J.0000-0002-9329-2190
Howard, Andrew W.0000-0001-8638-0320
Isogai, Keisuke0000-0002-6480-3799
Kawauchi, Kiyoe0000-0003-1205-5108
Livingston, John H.0000-0002-4881-3620
Matson, Rachel A.0000-0001-7233-7508
Narita, Norio0000-0001-8511-2981
Palle, Enric0000-0003-0987-1593
Parviainen, Hannu0000-0001-5519-1391
Rackham, Benjamin V.0000-0002-3627-1676
Rodriguez, David R.0000-0003-1286-5231
Rose, Mark0000-0003-4724-745X
Schlieder, Joshua E.0000-0001-5347-7062
Scott, Nicholas J.0000-0003-1038-9702
Vezie, Michael0000-0002-7930-1775
Ricker, George R.0000-0003-2058-6662
Vanderspek, Roland0000-0001-6763-6562
Latham, David W.0000-0001-9911-7388
Seager, Sara0000-0002-6892-6948
Winn, Joshua N.0000-0002-4265-047X
Jenkins, Jon M.0000-0002-4715-9460
Additional Information:© 2021 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model ( Accepted 2021 October 7. Received 2021 September 26; in original form 2021 July 21. Published: 22 December 2021. We are grateful to Coel Hellier for the insights regarding the WASP data. We also thank Elisabeth Newton, Robert Wells, Hongjing Yang, and Weicheng Zang for useful discussions. We also thank Elise Furlan for the contributions to the speckle data and Nadine Manset for scheduling the SPIRou observations. This work is partly supported by the National Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11390372 and 11761131004 to SM and TG). This research uses data obtained through the Telescope Access Program (TAP), which has been funded by the TAP member institutes. This work is partly supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers JP17H04574, JP18H05439, 20K14521, JST PRESTO Grant Number JPMJPR1775, and the Astrobiology Center of National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) (Grant Number AB031010). This article is based on observations made with the MuSCAT2 instrument, developed by ABC, at Telescopio Carlos Sánchez operated on the island of Tenerife by the IAC in the Spanish Observatorio del Teide. Some of the observations in the paper made use of the High-Resolution Imaging instrument ‘Alopeke obtained under LLP GN-2021A-LP-105. ‘Alopeke was funded by the NASA Exoplanet Exploration Program and built at the NASA Ames Research Center by Steve B. Howell, Nic Scott, Elliott P. Horch, and Emmett Quigley. Data were reduced using a software pipeline originally written by Elliott Horch and Mark Everett. ‘Alopeke was mounted on the Gemini North telescope of the international Gemini Observatory, a program of NSF’s OIR Lab, which is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), National Research Council (Canada), Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (Argentina), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovações e Comunicações (Brazil), and Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (Republic of Korea). Funding for the TESS mission is provided by NASA’s Science Mission directorate. We acknowledge the use of TESS public data from pipelines at the TESS Science Office and at the TESS Science Processing Operations Center. Resources supporting this work were provided by the NASA High-End Computing (HEC) Program through the NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) Division at Ames Research Center for the production of the SPOC data products. This research has made use of the Exoplanet Follow-up Observation Program website, which is operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under the Exoplanet Exploration Program. This paper includes data collected by the TESS mission, which are publicly available from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (, processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. This work made use of tpfplotter by J. Lillo-Box (publicly available in, which also made use of the python packages astropy, lightkurve, matplotlib and numpy. Data Availability: This paper includes photometric data collected by the TESS mission and ground instruments, which are publicly available in ExoFOP, at = 387690507. All spectroscopy data underlying this paper are listed in the text. All of the high-resolution speckle imaging data are available at the NASA exoplanet Archive with no proprietary period.
Group:Astronomy Department, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
National Natural Science Foundation of China11390372
National Natural Science Foundation of China11761131004
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP17H04574
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18H05439
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP20K14521
Japan Science and Technology AgencyJPMJPR1775
National Institutes of Natural Sciences of JapanAB031010
Gaia Multilateral AgreementUNSPECIFIED
Heising-Simons Foundation51 Pegasi b Fellowship
Subject Keywords:planets and satellites: detection – planets and satellites: gaseous planets – planets and satellites: individual: TIC 387690507, TOI 530 –stars: low-mass
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20211130-215717981
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Tianjun Gan, Zitao Lin, Sharon Xuesong Wang, Shude Mao, Pascal Fouqué, Jiahao Fan, Megan Bedell, Keivan G Stassun, Steven Giacalone, Akihiko Fukui, Felipe Murgas, David R Ciardi, Steve B Howell, Karen A C̃ollins, Avi Shporer, Luc Arnold, Thomas Barclay, David Charbonneau, Jessie Christiansen, Ian J M Crossfield, Courtney D Dressing, Ashley Elliott, Emma Esparza-Borges, Phil Evans, Crystal L Gnilka, Erica J Gonzales, Andrew W Howard, Keisuke Isogai, Kiyoe Kawauchi, Seiya Kurita, Beibei Liu, John H Livingston, Rachel A Matson, Norio Narita, Enric Palle, Hannu Parviainen, Benjamin V Rackham, David R Rodriguez, Mark Rose, Alexander Rudat, Joshua E Schlieder, Nicholas J Scott, Michael Vezie, George R Ricker, Roland Vanderspek, David W Latham, Sara Seager, Joshua N Winn, Jon M Jenkins, TOI-530b: A giant planet transiting an M dwarf detected by TESS, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 2021, stab3708,
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:112105
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:02 Dec 2021 20:57
Last Modified:08 Feb 2022 22:26

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