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A Search for Planet Nine using the Zwicky Transient Facility Public Archive

Brown, Michael E. and Batygin, Konstantin (2022) A Search for Planet Nine using the Zwicky Transient Facility Public Archive. Astronomical Journal, 163 (2). Art. No. 102. ISSN 1538-3881. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/ac32dd.

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Recent estimates of the characteristics of Planet Nine have suggested that it could be closer than originally assumed. Such a Planet Nine would also be brighter than originally assumed, suggesting the possibility that it has already been observed in wide-field moderate-depth surveys. We search for Planet Nine in the Zwicky Transient Facility public archive and find no candidates. Using known asteroids to calculate the magnitude limit of the survey, we find that we should have detected Planet Nine throughout most of the northern portion of its predicted orbit—including within the galactic plane—to a 95% detection efficiency of approximately V = 20.5. To aid in understanding detection limits for this and future analyses, we present a full-sky synthetic Planet Nine population drawn from a statistical sampling of predicted Planet Nine orbits. We use this reference population to estimate that this survey rules out 56% of predicted Planet Nine phase space, and we demonstrate how future analyses can use the same synthetic population to continue to constrain the amount of parameter space effectively searched for Planet Nine.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Brown, Michael E.0000-0002-8255-0545
Batygin, Konstantin0000-0002-7094-7908
Additional Information:© 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2021 September 2; revised 2021 October 18; accepted 2021 October 22; published 2022 January 31. This research has benefited greatly from conversations with Rich Dekany, Matt Holman, Matt Payne, and Matthew Belyakov. An anonymous referee provided insightful comments that improved the presentation of this manuscript.
Group:Zwicky Transient Facility
Subject Keywords:Sky surveys; Transient sources; Solar system planets; Solar system astronomy
Issue or Number:2
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Sky surveys (1464); Transient sources (1851); Solar system planets (1260); Solar system astronomy (1529)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20211130-215738362
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Official Citation:Michael E. Brown and Konstantin Batygin 2022 AJ 163 102
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:112110
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:01 Dec 2021 15:07
Last Modified:01 Feb 2022 23:18

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