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The Challenges Ahead for Multimessenger Analyses of Gravitational Waves and Kilonova: A Case Study on GW190425

Raaijmakers, Geert and Nissanke, Samaya and Foucart, Francois and Kasliwal, Mansi M. and Bulla, Mattia and Fernández, Rodrigo and Henkel, Amelia and Hinderer, Tanja and Hotokezaka, Kenta and Lukošiūtė, Kamilė and Venumadhav, Tejaswi and Antier, Sarah and Coughlin, Michael W. and Dietrich, Tim and Edwards, Thomas D. P. (2021) The Challenges Ahead for Multimessenger Analyses of Gravitational Waves and Kilonova: A Case Study on GW190425. Astrophysical Journal, 922 (2). Art. No. 269. ISSN 0004-637X. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac222d.

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In recent years, there have been significant advances in multimessenger astronomy due to the discovery of the first, and so far only confirmed, gravitational wave event with a simultaneous electromagnetic (EM) counterpart, as well as improvements in numerical simulations, gravitational wave (GW) detectors, and transient astronomy. This has led to the exciting possibility of performing joint analyses of the GW and EM data, providing additional constraints on fundamental properties of the binary progenitor and merger remnant. Here, we present a new Bayesian framework that allows inference of these properties, while taking into account the systematic modeling uncertainties that arise when mapping from GW binary progenitor properties to photometric light curves. We extend the relative binning method presented in Zackay et al. to include extrinsic GW parameters for fast analysis of the GW signal. The focus of our EM framework is on light curves arising from r-process nucleosynthesis in the ejected material during and after merger, the so-called kilonova, and particularly on black hole−neutron star systems. As a case study, we examine the recent detection of GW190425, where the primary object is consistent with being either a black hole or a neutron star. We show quantitatively how improved mapping between binary progenitor and outflow properties, and/or an increase in EM data quantity and quality are required in order to break degeneracies in the fundamental source parameters.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Raaijmakers, Geert0000-0002-9397-786X
Nissanke, Samaya0000-0001-6573-7773
Foucart, Francois0000-0003-4617-4738
Kasliwal, Mansi M.0000-0002-5619-4938
Bulla, Mattia0000-0002-8255-5127
Fernández, Rodrigo0000-0003-4619-339X
Henkel, Amelia0000-0001-8688-5273
Hinderer, Tanja0000-0002-3394-6105
Hotokezaka, Kenta0000-0002-2502-3730
Venumadhav, Tejaswi0000-0002-1661-2138
Antier, Sarah0000-0002-7686-3334
Coughlin, Michael W.0000-0002-8262-2924
Dietrich, Tim0000-0003-2374-307X
Additional Information:© 2021. The American Astronomical Society. Received 2021 February 23; revised 2021 August 26; accepted 2021 August 26; published 2021 December 6. We thank Kyohei Kawaguchi for providing us with their light curves and Andrew Williamson, Matthew Liska, Doosoo Yoon, Koushik Chatterjee, Philipp Moesta, Om Salafia, Masaomi Tanaka, and Kenta Kuichi for useful discussions. We thank Barbara Patricelli and Leo Singer for their careful reading of the paper and their comments. We are very grateful to the the LIGO Scientific, Virgo, and KAGRA Collaborations for public access to their data products of GW170817 and GW190425. We also thank the GROWTH collaboration for public access to their observational data products. G.R., S.M.N., T.H., and K.L. are grateful for financial support from the Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO) through the Projectruimte and VIDI grants (Nissanke). T.H. also acknowledges funding from the NWO sectorplan. F.F. and A.H. gratefully acknowledge support from NASA through grant number 80NSSC18K0565, from the DOE through Early Career Award DE-SC0020435, and from the NSF through grant No. PHY-1806278. M.M.K. acknowledges the GROWTH project funded by the National Science Foundation under PIRE Grant No 1545949. M.M.K. acknowledges generous support from the David and Lucille Packard Foundation. M.B. acknowledges support from the Swedish Research Council (Reg. No. 2020-03330). R.F. acknowledges support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) through Discovery Grant RGPIN-2017-04286, and from the Faculty of Science at the University of Alberta. T.V. acknowledges support by the John Bahcall Fellowship at the Institute for Advanced Study and by the National Science Foundation under grant No. 2012086. M.C. acknowledges support from the National Science Foundation with grant number PHY-2010970. T.E. acknowledges support by the Vetenskapsrådet (Swedish Research Council) through contract No. 638-2013-8993 and the Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics. Software: Python/C language (Oliphant 2007), NumPy (van der Walt et al. 2011), Cython (Behnel et al. 2011), SciPy (Jones et al. 2001), MPI (Forum 1994), MPI for Python (Dalcín et al. 2008), Matplotlib (Hunter 2007; Droettboom et al. 2018), IPython (Perez & Granger 2007), Jupyter (Kluyver et al. 2016), MultiNest (Feroz et al. 2009), PyMultiNest (Buchner et al. 2014), GetDist (Lewis 2019).
Group:Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-SC0020435
David and Lucile Packard FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Swedish Research Council2020-03330
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)RGPIN-2017-04286
University of AlbertaUNSPECIFIED
Institute for Advanced StudyUNSPECIFIED
Swedish Research Council638-2013-8993
Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle PhysicsUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Gravitational waves; Gravitational wave astronomy; Bayesian statistics; Neutron stars; Black holes; Compact binary stars; R-process
Issue or Number:2
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Gravitational waves (283); Gravitational wave astronomy (675); Bayesian statistics (1900); Neutron stars (1108); Black holes (162); Compact binary stars (283); R-process (1324)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20211207-393875000
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Geert Raaijmakers et al 2021 ApJ 922 269
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:112254
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:07 Dec 2021 21:22
Last Modified:07 Dec 2021 21:26

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