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Dominant Contributions of Secondary Aerosols and Vehicle Emissions to Water-Soluble Inorganic Ions of PM_(2.5) in an Urban Site in the Metropolitan Hangzhou, China

Xiong, Chun and Yu, Shaocai and Chen, Xue and Li, Zhen and Zhang, Yibo and Li, Mengying and Liu, Weiping and Li, Pengfei and Seinfeld, John H. (2021) Dominant Contributions of Secondary Aerosols and Vehicle Emissions to Water-Soluble Inorganic Ions of PM_(2.5) in an Urban Site in the Metropolitan Hangzhou, China. Atmosphere, 12 (11). Art. No. 1529. ISSN 2073-4433. doi:10.3390/atmos12111529. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20211207-6348000

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Abstract

Water soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) are important components in PM_(2.5) and could strongly affect the acidity and hygroscopicity of PM_(2.5). In order to achieve the seasonal characteristics and determine the potential sources of WSIIs in PM_(2.5) in Hangzhou, online systems were used to measure hourly mass concentrations of WSIIs (SO₄²⁻, NO₃⁻, NH₄+, Cl⁻, Na+, K+, Ca²+ and Mg²+) as well as PM_(2.5), NO₂ and SO₂ at an urban site for one month each season (May, August, October, December) in 2017. Results showed that the hourly mass concentrations of PM_(2.5) during the whole campaign varied from 1 to 292 μg·m⁻³ with the mean of 56.03 μg·m⁻³. The mean mass concentration of WSIIs was 26.49 ± 20.78 μg·m⁻³, which contributed 48.28% to averaged PM2.5 mass. SNA (SO₄²⁻, NO₃⁻ and NH₄⁺) were the most abundant ions in PM_(2.5) and on average, they comprised 41.57% of PM2.5 mass. PM_(2.5), NO₂, SO₂ and WSIIs showed higher mass concentrations in December, possibly due to higher energy consumption emissions, unfavorable meteorological factors (e.g., lower wind speed and temperature) and regional transport. Results from PCA models showed that secondary aerosols and vehicle emissions were the dominant sources of WSIIs in the observations. Our findings highlight the importance of stronger controls on precursor (e.g., SO₂ and NO₂) emissions in Hangzhou, and show that industrial areas should be controlled at local and regional scales in the future.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12111529DOIArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Yu, Shaocai0000-0001-9718-8246
Liu, Weiping0000-0002-1173-892X
Seinfeld, John H.0000-0003-1344-4068
Alternate Title:Dominant Contributions of Secondary Aerosols and Vehicle Emissions to Water-Soluble Inorganic Ions of PM2.5 in an Urban Site in the Metropolitan Hangzhou, China
Additional Information:© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). Received: 14 October 2021 / Revised: 6 November 2021 / Accepted: 14 November 2021 / Published: 19 November 2021. (This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Air Quality Data Analysis and Modeling) This work was partially supported by the Department of Science and Technology of China (Nos. 2018YFC0213506, 2018YFC0213503, and 2016YFC0202702), National Research Program for Key Issues in Air Pollution Control in China (No. DQGG0107), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 21577126 and 41561144004). Part of this work was also supported by the “Zhejiang 1000 Talent Plan” and Research Center for Air Pollution and Health in Zhejiang University. Pengfei Li is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 22006030), Initiation Fund for Introducing Talents of Hebei Agricultural University (412201904), and Hebei Youth Top Q15 Fund (BJ2020032). Author Contributions. S.Y. designed this study and X.C. and S.Y. wrote the manuscript. C.X. and S.Y. contributed to observations and data analyses, C.X., W.L., Z.L., Y.Z., M.L., W.L., P.L. and J.H.S. contributed to the discussions. S.Y. contributed to the manuscript and supervised the research. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. Institutional Review Board Statement: Not applicable. Informed Consent Statement: Not applicable. Data Availability Statement. Data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request. The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Department of Science and Technology (China)2018YFC0213506
Department of Science and Technology (China)2018YFC0213503
Department of Science and Technology (China)2016YFC0202702
National Research Program for Key Issues in Air Pollution Control in ChinaDQGG0107
National Natural Science Foundation of China21577126
National Natural Science Foundation of China41561144004
Zhejiang 1000 Talent PlanUNSPECIFIED
Zhejiang UniversityUNSPECIFIED
National Natural Science Foundation of China22006030
Hebei Agricultural University412201904
Hebei Youth Top FundBJ2020032
Subject Keywords:secondary aerosols; vehicle emissions; water-soluble inorganic ions; HYSPLIT model; Hangzhou
Issue or Number:11
DOI:10.3390/atmos12111529
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20211207-6348000
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20211207-6348000
Official Citation:Xiong, Chun, Shaocai Yu, Xue Chen, Zhen Li, Yibo Zhang, Mengying Li, Weiping Liu, Pengfei Li, and John H. Seinfeld 2021. "Dominant Contributions of Secondary Aerosols and Vehicle Emissions to Water-Soluble Inorganic Ions of PM2.5 in an Urban Site in the Metropolitan Hangzhou, China" Atmosphere 12, no. 11: 1529. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12111529
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:112269
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:08 Dec 2021 18:13
Last Modified:08 Dec 2021 18:13

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