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A repeating fast radio burst source in a globular cluster

Kirsten, F. and Marcote, B. and Nimmo, K. and Hessels, J. W. T. and Bhardwaj, M. and Tendulkar, S. P. and Keimpema, A. and Yang, J. and Snelders, M. P. and Scholz, P. and Pearlman, A. B. and Law, C. J. and Peters, W. M. and Giroletti, M. and Paragi, Z. and Bassa, C. and Hewitt, D. M. and Bach, U. and Bezrukovs, V. and Burgay, M. and Buttaccio, S. T. and Conway, J. E. and Corongiu, A. and Feiler, R. and Forssén, O. and Gawroński, M. P. and Karuppusamy, R. and Kharinov, M. A. and Lindqvist, M. and Maccaferri, G. and Melnikov, A. and Ould-Boukattine, O. S. and Possenti, A. and Surcis, G. and Wang, N. and Yuan, J. and Aggarwal, K. and Anna-Thomas, R. and Bower, G. C. and Blaauw, R. and Burke-Spolaor, S. and Cassanelli, T. and Clarke, T. E. and Fonseca, E. and Gaensler, B. M. and Gopinath, A. and Kaspi, V. M. and Kassim, N. and Lazio, T. J. W. and Leung, C. and Li, D. Z. and Lin, H. H. and Masui, K. W. and Mckinven, R. and Michilli, D. and Mikhailov, A. G. and Ng, C. and Orbidans, A. and Pen, U. L. and Petroff, E. and Rahman, M. and Ransom, S. M. and Shin, K. and Smith, K. M. and Stairs, I. H. and Vlemmings, W. (2022) A repeating fast radio burst source in a globular cluster. Nature, 602 (7898). pp. 585-589. ISSN 0028-0836. doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04354-w. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20211213-183041254

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Abstract

Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are flashes of unknown physical origin. The majority of FRBs have been seen only once, although some are known to generate multiple flashes. Many models invoke magnetically powered neutron stars (magnetars) as the source of the emission. Recently, the discovery of another repeater (FRB 20200120E) was announced, in the direction of the nearby galaxy M81, with four potential counterparts at other wavelengths. Here we report observations that localized the FRB to a globular cluster associated with M81, where it is 2 parsecs away from the optical centre of the cluster. Globular clusters host old stellar populations, challenging FRB models that invoke young magnetars formed in a core-collapse supernova. We propose instead that FRB 20200120E originates from a highly magnetized neutron star formed either through the accretion-induced collapse of a white dwarf, or the merger of compact stars in a binary system7. Compact binaries are efficiently formed inside globular clusters, so a model invoking them could also be responsible for the observed bursts.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-04354-wDOIArticle
https://rdcu.be/cHWdxPublisherFree ReadCube access
https://arxiv.org/abs/2105.11445arXivDiscussion Paper
https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5708237DOIData
http://www.aips.nrao.edu/index.shtmlRelated ItemAIPS
https://casa.nrao.edu/Related ItemCASA
https://science.nrao.edu/facilities/vlba/docs/manuals/oss2013a/post-processing-software/difmapRelated ItemDifmap
http://dspsr.sourceforge.net/Related ItemDSPSR
https://github.com/devanshkv/fetchRelated ItemFETCH
https://sourceforge.net/projects/heimdall-astro/Related ItemHeimdall
https://iraf-community.github.io/Related ItemIRAF
https://github.com/scottransom/prestoRelated ItemPRESTO
http://psrchive.sourceforge.net/Related ItemPSRCHIVE
https://github.com/danielemichilli/SpSRelated ItemSpS
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Kirsten, F.0000-0001-6664-8668
Marcote, B.0000-0001-9814-2354
Nimmo, K.0000-0003-0510-0740
Hessels, J. W. T.0000-0003-2317-1446
Bhardwaj, M.0000-0002-3615-3514
Tendulkar, S. P.0000-0003-2548-2926
Keimpema, A.0000-0002-5575-2774
Scholz, P.0000-0002-7374-7119
Pearlman, A. B.0000-0002-8912-0732
Law, C. J.0000-0002-4119-9963
Giroletti, M.0000-0002-8657-8852
Paragi, Z.0000-0002-5195-335X
Hewitt, D. M.0000-0002-5794-2360
Bach, U.0000-0002-7722-8412
Karuppusamy, R.0000-0002-5307-2919
Lindqvist, M.0000-0002-3669-0715
Surcis, G.0000-0003-2775-442X
Aggarwal, K.0000-0002-2059-0525
Bower, G. C.0000-0003-4056-9982
Burke-Spolaor, S.0000-0003-4052-7838
Cassanelli, T.0000-0003-2047-5276
Clarke, T. E.0000-0001-6812-7938
Fonseca, E.0000-0001-8384-5049
Gaensler, B. M.0000-0002-3382-9558
Kaspi, V. M.0000-0001-9345-0307
Kassim, N.0000-0001-8035-4906
Lazio, T. J. W.0000-0002-3873-5497
Li, D. Z.0000-0001-7931-0607
Michilli, D.0000-0002-2551-7554
Petroff, E.0000-0002-9822-8008
Rahman, M.0000-0003-1842-6096
Ransom, S. M.0000-0001-5799-9714
Stairs, I. H.0000-0001-9784-8670
Additional Information:© 2022 Nature Publishing Group. Received 20 May 2021; Accepted 15 December 2021; Published 23 February 2022. We thank the directors and staff at the various participating stations for allowing us to use their facilities and running the observations. The European VLBI Network is a joint facility of independent European, African, Asian and North American radio astronomy institutes. Scientific results from data presented in this publication are derived from the following EVN project code: EK048. This work was also based on simultaneous EVN and PSRIX data recording observations with the 100-m telescope of the MPIfR (Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie) at Effelsberg, and we thank the local staff for this arrangement. We would like to express our gratitude to W. van Straten for modifying the DSPSR software package to fit our needs. We appreciate discussions about magnetar formation scenarios in a globular cluster environment with E. P. J. van den Heuvel. Research by the AstroFlash group at University of Amsterdam, ASTRON and JIVE is supported in part by an NWO Vici grant (principal investigator (PI) J.W.T.H.; VI.C.192.045). This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreements 730562 (RadioNet) and 101004719 (OPTICON-RadioNet Pilot). A.B.P. is a McGill Space Institute (MSI) Fellow and a Fonds de Recherche du Quebec – Nature et Technologies (FRQNT) postdoctoral fellow. B.M. acknowledges support from the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO) under grant AYA2016-76012-C3-1-P and from the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación under grants PID2019-105510GB-C31 and CEX2019-000918-M of ICCUB (Unidad de Excelencia “María de Maeztu” 2020–2023). Basic research in radio astronomy at NRL is funded by 6.1 Base funding. Construction and installation of VLITE was supported by the NRL Sustainment Restoration and Maintenance fund. C.J.L. acknowledges support from the National Science Foundation grant 2022546. C.L. was supported by the US Department of Defense (DoD) through the National Defense Science & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG) programme. D.M. is a Banting Fellow. E.P. acknowledges funding from an NWO Veni Fellowship. F.K. acknowledges support from the Swedish Research Council via grant no. 2014-05713. FRB research at UBC is supported by an NSERC Discovery Grant and by the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research. J.Yuan is supported by the National Program on Key Research and Development Project (2017YFA0402602). K.S. is supported by the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship Program. K.W.M. is supported by an NSF Grant (2008031). M.Bhardwaj is supported by an FRQNT Doctoral Research Award. N.W. acknowledges support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grants 12041304 and 11873080) P.S. is a Dunlap Fellow and an NSERC Postdoctoral Fellow. The Dunlap Institute is funded through an endowment established by the David Dunlap family and the University of Toronto. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The NANOGrav project receives support from National Science Foundation (NSF) Physics Frontiers Center award number 1430284. B.M.G. acknowledges the support of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) through grant RGPIN-2015-05948, and of the Canada Research Chairs programme. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. S.M.R. is a CIFAR Fellow and is supported by the NSF Physics Frontiers Center award 1430284. This work is based in part on observations carried out using the 32-m radio telescope operated by the Institute of Astronomy of the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Poland) and supported by a Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education SpUB grant. This work is based in part on observations carried out using the 32-m Badary, Svetloe and Zelenchukskaya radio telescopes operated by the Scientific Equipment Sharing Center of the Quasar VLBI Network (Russia). The Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) is funded by the Department of University and Research (MIUR), the Italian Space Agency (ASI), and the Autonomous Region of Sardinia (RAS) and is operated as National Facility by the National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF). V.B. acknowledges support from the Engineering Research Institute Ventspils International Radio Astronomy Centre (VIRAC). V.M.K. holds the Lorne Trottier Chair in Astrophysics & Cosmology and a Distinguished James McGill Professorship and receives support from an NSERC Discovery Grant and Herzberg Award, from an R. Howard Webster Foundation Fellowship from the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR), and from the FRQNT Centre de Recherche en Astrophysique du Quebec. We received support from Ontario Research Fund – Research Excellence (ORF-RE) programme, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC; funding reference number RGPIN-2019-067, CRD 523638-201, 555585-20), Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR), Canadian Foundation for Innovation (CFI), the National Science Foundation of China (grant no. 11929301), Simons Foundation, Thoth Technology Inc, and Alexander von Humboldt Foundation. Computations were performed on the SOSCIP Consortium’s (Blue Gene/Q, Cloud Data Analytics, Agile and/or Large Memory System) computing platform(s). SOSCIP is funded by the Federal Economic Development Agency of Southern Ontario, the Province of Ontario, IBM Canada Ltd., Ontario Centres of Excellence, Mitacs and 15 Ontario academic member institutions. Based (in part) on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. AIPS is a software package produced and maintained by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). Data availability: The datasets generated from the EVN observations and analysed in this study are available at the Public EVN Data Archive under the experiment codes EK048B, EK048C and EK048F. The calibrated maps, plotting scripts and further data used in this manuscript are available at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5708237. Code availability: The codes used to analyse the data are available at the following sites: AIPS (http://www.aips.nrao.edu/index.shtml), CASA (https://casa.nrao.edu), Difmap (https://science.nrao.edu/facilities/vlba/docs/manuals/oss2013a/post-processing-software/difmap), DSPSR (http://dspsr.sourceforge.net), FETCH (https://github.com/devanshkv/fetch), Heimdall (https://sourceforge.net/projects/heimdall-astro), IRAF (https://iraf-community.github.io/), PRESTO (https://github.com/scottransom/presto), PSRCHIVE (http://psrchive.sourceforge.net), and SpS (https://github.com/danielemichilli/SpS). Contributions: F.K. is the Principal Investigator of the PRECISE team; he organized the observations, found the five bursts in the raw voltages and coordinated writing of the manuscript. B.M. led the analysis of the correlated data, performed the localization and wrote parts of the manuscript. K.N. led the time-domain analysis of the bursts. J.W.T.H. led the interpretation of the results and wrote parts of the manuscript. M.Bhardwaj led and performed the modelling of [PR95] 30244. S.P.T. performed the data reduction and analysis of the Subaru data. A.K. wrote and modified the software correlator SFXC to allow for the highest time resolution data. J.Yang assisted with the data reduction, analysis and interpretation of the correlated data. M.P.S. helped with the manuscript and created Extended Data Fig. 1. P.S. and A.B.P. reduced and analysed the archival Chandra data. C.J.L. reduced and analysed the Realfast data. W.M.P. reduced and analysed the VLITE data. M.G. and A.B.P. searched the Fermi catalogues. Z.P. assisted with the reduction and analysis of the correlated data. C.B. assessed the optical registration errors of the Subaru and Gaia images. D.M.H. searched the PSRIX and DFB data for bursts. U.B. coordinated and performed the observations at Effelsberg. V.B. coordinated and performed the observations at Irbene. M.Burgay helped commission the dual recording mode at SRT. S.T.B. coordinated and performed the observations at Noto. J.E.C. supported the observations at Onsala. A.C. implemented the dual recording mode at SRT and performed some of the observations. R.F. supports the observations at Toruń. O.F. wrote observing schedules. M.P.G. coordinated and performed the observations at Toruń. R.K. assisted with the dual recording at Effelsberg. M.A.K. supports the observations at Badary, Svetloe and Zelenchukskaya. M.L. supported the observations at Onsala and assisted with the manuscript. G.M. coordinated and performed the observations at Medicina. A.M. coordinated and performed the observations at Badary, Svetloe and Zelenchukskaya. A.G.M. supports the data transfer of the observations at Badary, Svetloe and Zelenchukskaya. O.S.O.-B. wrote observing schedules. A.P. supported the observations at SRT. G.S. ran most of the observations at SRT. N.W. and J.Yuan coordinated and performed the observations at Urumqi. V.M.K. played a significant coordination role that enabled these results. All other co-authors contributed to the CHIME/FRB discovery of the source or the interpretation of the analysis results and the final version of the manuscript. The authors declare no competing interests. Peer review information: Nature thanks Anthony Walters and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work. Peer reviewer reports are available.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)VI.C.192.045
European Research Council (ERC)730562
European Research Council (ERC)101004719
McGill Space InstituteUNSPECIFIED
Fonds de recherche du Québec - Nature et technologies (FRQNT)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)AYA2016-76012-C3-1-P
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)PID2019-105510GB-C31
Centro de Excelencia Severo OchoaCEX2019-000918-M
Naval Research Laboratory6.1 Base funding
NSFAST-2022546
Department of DefenseUNSPECIFIED
National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Bantrell FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Swedish Research Council2014-05713
Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR)UNSPECIFIED
National Key Research and Development Program of China2017YFA0402602
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
NSFAST-2008031
National Natural Science Foundation of China12041304
National Natural Science Foundation of China11873080
Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and AstrophysicsUNSPECIFIED
David Dunlap FamilyUNSPECIFIED
University of TorontoUNSPECIFIED
NASA/JPL/CaltechUNSPECIFIED
NSFPHY-1430284
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)RGPIN-2015-05948
Canada Research Chairs ProgramUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science and Higher Education (Poland)UNSPECIFIED
Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca (MIUR)UNSPECIFIED
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI)UNSPECIFIED
Autonomous Region of Sardinia (RAS)UNSPECIFIED
Ventspils International Radio Astronomy Centre (VIRAC)UNSPECIFIED
Lorne Trottier Chair in Astrophysics and CosmologyUNSPECIFIED
Herzberg Institute of AstrophysicsUNSPECIFIED
R. Howard Webster FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Ontario Research Fund-Research ExcellenceUNSPECIFIED
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)RGPIN-2019-067
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)CRD 523638-201
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)555585-20
National Natural Science Foundation of China11929301
Simons FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Thoth Technology Inc.UNSPECIFIED
Alexander von Humboldt FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Federal Economic Development Agency of Southern OntarioUNSPECIFIED
Province of OntarioUNSPECIFIED
IBM Canada Ltd.UNSPECIFIED
Ontario Centres of ExcellenceUNSPECIFIED
Mathematics of Information Technology and Complex Systems (MITACS)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Compact astrophysical objects; Time-domain astronomy; Transient astrophysical phenomena
Issue or Number:7898
DOI:10.1038/s41586-021-04354-w
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20211213-183041254
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20211213-183041254
Official Citation:Kirsten, F., Marcote, B., Nimmo, K. et al. A repeating fast radio burst source in a globular cluster. Nature 602, 585–589 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-04354-w
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:112367
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:13 Dec 2021 19:16
Last Modified:28 Feb 2022 21:45

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