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The Type Icn SN 2021csp: Implications for the Origins of the Fastest Supernovae and the Fates of Wolf–Rayet Stars

Perley, Daniel A. and Sollerman, Jesper and Schulze, Steve and Yao, Yuhan and Fremling, Christoffer and Gal-Yam, Avishay and Ho, Anna Y. Q. and Yang, Yi and Kool, Erik C. and Irani, Ido and Yan, Lin and Andreoni, Igor and Baade, Dietrich and Bellm, Eric C. and Brink, Thomas G. and Chen, Ting-Wan and Cikota, Aleksandar and Coughlin, Michael W. and Dahiwale, Aishwarya and Dekany, Richard and Duev, Dmitry A. and Filippenko, Alexei V. and Hoeflich, Peter and Kasliwal, Mansi M. and Kulkarni, S. R. and Lunnan, Ragnhild and Masci, Frank J. and Maund, Justyn R. and Medford, Michael S. and Riddle, Reed and Rosnet, Philippe and Shupe, David L. and Strotjohann, Nora Linn and Tzanidakis, Anastasios and Zheng, WeiKang (2022) The Type Icn SN 2021csp: Implications for the Origins of the Fastest Supernovae and the Fates of Wolf–Rayet Stars. Astrophysical Journal, 927 (2). Art. No. 180. ISSN 0004-637X. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac478e.

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We present observations of SN 2021csp, the second example of a newly identified type of supernova (SN) hallmarked by strong, narrow, P Cygni carbon features at early times (Type Icn). The SN appears as a fast and luminous blue transient at early times, reaching a peak absolute magnitude of −20 within 3 days due to strong interaction between fast SN ejecta (v ≈ 30,000 km s⁻¹) and a massive, dense, fast-moving C/O wind shed by the WC-like progenitor months before explosion. The narrow-line features disappear from the spectrum 10–20 days after explosion and are replaced by a blue continuum dominated by broad Fe features, reminiscent of Type Ibn and IIn supernovae and indicative of weaker interaction with more extended H/He-poor material. The transient then abruptly fades ∼60 days post-explosion when interaction ceases. Deep limits at later phases suggest minimal heavy-element nucleosynthesis, a low ejecta mass, or both, and imply an origin distinct from that of classical Type Ic SNe. We place SN 2021csp in context with other fast-evolving interacting transients, and discuss various progenitor scenarios: an ultrastripped progenitor star, a pulsational pair-instability eruption, or a jet-driven fallback SN from a Wolf–Rayet (W-R) star. The fallback scenario would naturally explain the similarity between these events and radio-loud fast transients, and suggests a picture in which most stars massive enough to undergo a W-R phase collapse directly to black holes at the end of their lives.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Perley, Daniel A.0000-0001-8472-1996
Sollerman, Jesper0000-0003-1546-6615
Schulze, Steve0000-0001-6797-1889
Yao, Yuhan0000-0001-6747-8509
Fremling, Christoffer0000-0002-4223-103X
Gal-Yam, Avishay0000-0002-3653-5598
Ho, Anna Y. Q.0000-0002-9017-3567
Yang, Yi0000-0002-9024-4150
Kool, Erik C.0000-0002-7252-3877
Irani, Ido0000-0002-7996-8780
Yan, Lin0000-0003-1710-9339
Andreoni, Igor0000-0002-8977-1498
Baade, Dietrich0000-0003-1637-9679
Bellm, Eric C.0000-0001-8018-5348
Brink, Thomas G.0000-0001-5955-2502
Chen, Ting-Wan0000-0002-1066-6098
Cikota, Aleksandar0000-0001-7101-9831
Coughlin, Michael W.0000-0002-8262-2924
Dekany, Richard0000-0002-5884-7867
Duev, Dmitry A.0000-0001-5060-8733
Filippenko, Alexei V.0000-0003-3460-0103
Hoeflich, Peter0000-0002-4338-6586
Kasliwal, Mansi M.0000-0002-5619-4938
Kulkarni, S. R.0000-0001-5390-8563
Lunnan, Ragnhild0000-0001-9454-4639
Masci, Frank J.0000-0002-8532-9395
Maund, Justyn R.0000-0003-0733-7215
Medford, Michael S.0000-0002-7226-0659
Riddle, Reed0000-0002-0387-370X
Rosnet, Philippe0000-0002-6099-7565
Shupe, David L.0000-0003-4401-0430
Strotjohann, Nora Linn0000-0002-4667-6730
Tzanidakis, Anastasios0000-0003-0484-3331
Zheng, WeiKang0000-0002-2636-6508
Additional Information:© 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2021 August 6; revised 2021 November 15; accepted 2021 December 29; published 2022 March 15. We thank Ori Fox, D. Alexander Kann, and the anonymous referee for helpful comments and suggestions. Based on observations obtained with the Samuel Oschin 48 inch telescope and the 60 inch telescope at the Palomar Observatory as part of the Zwicky Transient Facility project. ZTF is supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) under grant AST-2034437 and a collaboration including Caltech, IPAC, the Weizmann Institute for Science, the Oskar Klein Center (OKC) at Stockholm University, the University of Maryland, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron and Humboldt University, the TANGO Consortium of Taiwan, the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, Trinity College Dublin, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, and IN2P3, France. Operations are conducted by COO, IPAC, and UW. The SED Machine is based upon work supported by the NSF under grant 1106171. The ZTF forced-photometry service was funded by Heising-Simons Foundation grant No. 12540303 (PI: M. Graham). The Liverpool Telescope is operated on the island of La Palma by Liverpool John Moores University in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias with financial support from the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council. Partly based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, owned in collaboration by the University of Turku and Aarhus University, and operated jointly by Aarhus University, the University of Turku, and the University of Oslo (respectively representing Denmark, Finland, and Norway), the University of Iceland, and Stockholm University at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. These data were obtained with ALFOSC, which is provided by the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA) under a joint agreement with the University of Copenhagen and NOT. Based in part on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programs 106.21U2 and 106.216C. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA; the observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. A major upgrade of the Kast spectrograph on the Shane 3 m telescope at Lick Observatory was made possible through generous gifts from the Heising-Simons Foundation as well as William and Marina Kast. Research at Lick Observatory is partially supported by a generous gift from Google. We thank the staffs of the various observatories where data were obtained for their assistance. J.S., S.S., and E.K. acknowledge support from the G.R.E.A.T. research environment funded by Vetenskapsrådet, the Swedish Research Council, under project #2016-06012. The OKC's participation in ZTF was made possible by the K.A.W. foundation. E.K. also acknowledges support from The Wenner-Gren Foundation. M.M.K. acknowledges generous support from the David and Lucille Packard Foundation. P.R. has received support from the from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (grant agreement 759194—USNAC). The research of Y.Y. is supported through a Benoziyo Prize Postdoctoral Fellowship and a Bengier-Winslow-Robertson Fellowship. T.-W.C. acknowledges EU funding under Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant H2020-MSCA-IF-2018-842471. R.L. acknowledges support from a Marie Skłodowska-Curie Individual Fellowship within the Horizon 2020 European Union (EU) Framework Programme for Research and Innovation (H2020-MSCA-IF-2017-794467). The GROWTH Marshal (Kasliwal et al. 2019) development was supported by the GROWTH project funded by the NSF under grant 1545949. A.V.F.'s group is supported by the Christopher R. Redlich Fund, the Miller Institute for Basic Research in Science (where A.V.F. is a Miller Senior Fellow), and many individual donors. A.G.Y.s research is supported by the EU via ERC grant No. 725161, the ISF GW excellence center, an IMOS space infrastructure grant and BSF/Transformative and GIF grants, as well as The Benoziyo Endowment Fund for the Advancement of Science, the Deloro Institute for Advanced Research in Space and Optics, The Veronika A. Rabl Physics Discretionary Fund, Minerva, Yeda-Sela and the Schwartz/Reisman Collaborative Science Program; A.G.Y. is the incumbent of the The Arlyn Imberman Professorial Chair. IRAF is distributed by the National Optical Astronomy Observatories, which are operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under cooperative agreement with the NSF. Facilities: HST(STIS - , COS) - , Swift(XRT - , UVOT) - , PO:1.2m(ZTF) - , PO:1.5m(SEDM) - , Hale(DBSP) - , LT(IO:O - , SPRAT) - , VLA - , Gemini:Gillett - , NOT - , VLT:Antu (FORS2) - , Shane (Kast) - , Keck:I (LRIS) - . Software: IRAF (Tody 1986), HEASoft (Blackburn 1995), Pypeit (Prochaska et al. 2020), LPipe (Perley 2019), DBSP-DRP (Roberson 2021), PyNOT (Krogager 2021), Galfit (Peng et al. 2002, 2010).
Group:Astronomy Department, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), Zwicky Transient Facility
Funding AgencyGrant Number
ZTF partner institutionsUNSPECIFIED
Heising-Simons Foundation12540303
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
William and Marina KastUNSPECIFIED
Swedish Research Council2016-06012
Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Wenner-Gren FoundationUNSPECIFIED
David and Lucile Packard FoundationUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)759194
Benoziyo Prize Postdoctoral FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Bengier-Winslow-Robertson FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Marie Curie Fellowship842471
Marie Curie Fellowship794467
Christopher R. Redlich FundUNSPECIFIED
Miller Institute for Basic Research in ScienceUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)725161
Israel Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science (Israel)UNSPECIFIED
Binational Science Foundation (USA-Israel)UNSPECIFIED
German-Israeli Foundation for Research and DevelopmentUNSPECIFIED
Benoziyo Endowment Fund for the Advancement of ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Deloro Institute for Advanced Research in Space and OpticsUNSPECIFIED
Veronika A. Rabl Physics Discretionary FundUNSPECIFIED
Schwartz/Reisman Collaborative Science ProgramUNSPECIFIED
Arlyn Imberman Professorial ChairUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Supernovae; Core-collapse supernovae; Wolf–Rayet stars; Stellar mass black holes; Transient sources
Issue or Number:2
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Supernovae (1668); Core-collapse supernovae (304); Wolf–Rayet stars (1806); Stellar mass black holes (1611); Transient sources (1851)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20211213-224953043
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Daniel A. Perley et al 2022 ApJ 927 180
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:112386
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:14 Dec 2021 02:54
Last Modified:25 Mar 2022 20:20

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