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Characterizing mass, momentum, energy, and metal outflow rates of multiphase galactic winds in the FIRE-2 cosmological simulations

Pandya, Viraj and Fielding, Drummond B. and Anglés-Alcázar, Daniel and Somerville, Rachel S. and Bryan, Greg L. and Hayward, Christopher C. and Stern, Jonathan and Kim, Chang-Goo and Quataert, Eliot and Forbes, John C. and Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André and Feldmann, Robert and Hafen, Zachary and Hopkins, Philip F. and Kereš, Dušan and Murray, Norman and Wetzel, Andrew (2021) Characterizing mass, momentum, energy, and metal outflow rates of multiphase galactic winds in the FIRE-2 cosmological simulations. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 508 (2). pp. 2979-3008. ISSN 0035-8711. doi:10.1093/mnras/stab2714.

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We characterize mass, momentum, energy, and metal outflow rates of multiphase galactic winds in a suite of FIRE-2 cosmological ‘zoom-in’ simulations from the Feedback in Realistic Environments (FIRE) project. We analyse simulations of low-mass dwarfs, intermediate-mass dwarfs, Milky Way-mass haloes, and high-redshift massive haloes. Consistent with previous work, we find that dwarfs eject about 100 times more gas from their interstellar medium (ISM) than they form in stars, while this mass ‘loading factor’ drops below one in massive galaxies. Most of the mass is carried by the hot phase (>10⁵ K) in massive haloes and the warm phase (10³−10⁵ K) in dwarfs; cold outflows (<10³ K) are negligible except in high-redshift dwarfs. Energy, momentum, and metal loading factors from the ISM are of order unity in dwarfs and significantly lower in more massive haloes. Hot outflows have 2−5 × higher specific energy than needed to escape from the gravitational potential of dwarf haloes; indeed, in dwarfs, the mass, momentum, and metal outflow rates increase with radius whereas energy is roughly conserved, indicating swept up halo gas. Burst-averaged mass loading factors tend to be larger during more powerful star formation episodes and when the inner halo is not virialized, but we see effectively no trend with the dense ISM gas fraction. We discuss how our results can guide future controlled numerical experiments that aim to elucidate the key parameters governing galactic winds and the resulting associated preventative feedback.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Pandya, Viraj0000-0002-2499-9205
Fielding, Drummond B.0000-0003-3806-8548
Anglés-Alcázar, Daniel0000-0001-5769-4945
Somerville, Rachel S.0000-0003-2835-8533
Bryan, Greg L.0000-0003-2630-9228
Hayward, Christopher C.0000-0003-4073-3236
Stern, Jonathan0000-0002-7541-9565
Kim, Chang-Goo0000-0003-2896-3725
Quataert, Eliot0000-0001-9185-5044
Forbes, John C.0000-0002-1975-4449
Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André0000-0002-4900-6628
Feldmann, Robert0000-0002-1109-1919
Hafen, Zachary0000-0001-7326-1736
Hopkins, Philip F.0000-0003-3729-1684
Kereš, Dušan0000-0002-1666-7067
Wetzel, Andrew0000-0003-0603-8942
Alternate Title:Characterizing mass, momentum, energy and metal outflow rates of multi-phase galactic winds in the FIRE-2 cosmological simulations
Additional Information:© 2021 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model ( Accepted 2021 September 17. Received 2021 August 23; in original form 2021 March 10. We thank Kevin Bundy, Yakov Faerman, Piero Madau, Eve Ostriker, Kung-Yi Su, Cassi Lochhaas, and the FIRE and SMAUG teams for helpful discussions. We are grateful to the referee for helping to improve the clarity of this paper. VP was supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Graduate Research Fellowship Program under grant no. 1339067 and a Flatiron Institute Pre-Doctoral Fellowship. DAA was supported in part by NSF grant no. AST-2009687. GLB acknowledges financial support from the NSF (grant nos. AST-1615955, OAC-1835509) and computing support from NSF XSEDE. CGK was supported by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Astrophysics Theory Program (ATP) grant NNX17AG26G. AW received support from NASA through ATP grants 80NSSC18K1097 and 80NSSC20K0513; HST grants GO-14734, AR-15057, AR-15809, and GO-15902 from Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI); the Heising-Simons Foundation; and a Hellman Fellowship. CAFG was supported by NSF through grants AST-1715216 and CAREER award AST-1652522; by NASA through grant 17-ATP17-0067; by STScI through grant HST-AR-16124.001-A; and by a Cottrell Scholar Award and a Scialog Award from the Research Corporation for Science Advancement. DK was supported by NSF grant AST-1715101. ZH was supported by a Gary A. McCue postdoctoral fellowship at UC Irvine. Support for PFH was provided by NSF Research Grants 1911233 and 20009234, NSF CAREER grant 1455342, NASAgrants 80NSSC18K0562, HST-AR-15800.001-A. Numerical calculations were run on the Caltech compute cluster ‘Wheeler,’ allocations FTA-Hopkins/AST20016 supported by the NSF and TACC, and NASA HEC SMD-16-7592. The data used in this work were, in part, hosted on facilities supported by the Scientific Computing Core at the Flatiron Institute, a division of the Simons Foundation. The simulations were run using XSEDE allocations TG-AST160048 (supported by NSF grant ACI-1548562) and TG-AST120025, and Pleiades via the NASA HEC programme through the NAS Division at Ames Research Center. DATA AVAILABILITY STATEMENT. The data underlying this article were provided by the FIRE Collaboration with permission. Data will be shared on reasonable request to the corresponding author with permission of the FIRE Collaboration.
Group:Astronomy Department, TAPIR
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1339067
Flatiron InstituteUNSPECIFIED
Heising-Simons FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Hellman Fellows FundUNSPECIFIED
Cottrell Scholar of Research CorporationUNSPECIFIED
Scialog Fellow of Research CorporationUNSPECIFIED
University of California, IrvineUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:hydrodynamics – ISM: jets and outflows – ISM: supernova remnants – galaxies: evolution – galaxies: haloes – galaxies: star formation
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20211215-622148000
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Viraj Pandya, Drummond B Fielding, Daniel Anglés-Alcázar, Rachel S Somerville, Greg L Bryan, Christopher C Hayward, Jonathan Stern, Chang-Goo Kim, Eliot Quataert, John C Forbes, Claude-André Faucher-Giguère, Robert Feldmann, Zachary Hafen, Philip F Hopkins, Dušan Kereš, Norman Murray, Andrew Wetzel, Characterizing mass, momentum, energy, and metal outflow rates of multiphase galactic winds in the FIRE-2 cosmological simulations, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 508, Issue 2, December 2021, Pages 2979–3008,
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:112475
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:16 Dec 2021 19:22
Last Modified:16 Dec 2021 19:22

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