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Search for Lensing Signatures in the Gravitational-Wave Observations from the First Half of LIGO–Virgo’s Third Observing Run

Abbott, R. and Abbott, T. D. and Abraham, S. and Acernese, F. and Ackley, K. and Adams, A. and Adams, C. and Adhikari, R. X. and Adya, V. B. and Affeldt, C. and Agarwal, D. and Agathos, M. and Agatsuma, K. and Aggarwal, N. and Aguiar, O. D. and Aiello, L. and Ain, A. and Ajith, P. and Aleman, K. M. and Allen, G. and Allocca, A. and Altin, P. A. and Amato, A. and Anand, S. and Ananyeva, A. and Anderson, S. B. and Anderson, W. G. and Angelova, S. V. and Ansoldi, S. and Antelis, J. M. and Antier, S. and Appert, S. and Arai, K. and Araya, M. C. and Areeda, J. S. and Arène, M. and Arnaud, N. and Aronson, S. M. and Arun, K. G. and Asali, Y. and Ashton, G. and Aston, S. M. and Astone, P. and Aubin, F. and Aufmuth, P. and AultONeal, K. and Austin, C. and Babak, S. and Badaracco, F. and Bader, M. K. M. and Bae, S. and Baer, A. M. and Bagnasco, S. and Bai, Y. and Baird, J. and Ball, M. and Ballardin, G. and Ballmer, S. W. and Bals, M. and Balsamo, A. and Baltus, G. and Banagiri, S. and Bankar, D. and Bankar, R. S. and Barayoga, J. C. and Barbieri, C. and Barish, B. C. and Barker, D. and Barneo, P. and Barone, F. and Barr, B. and Barsotti, L. and Barsuglia, M. and Barta, D. and Bartlett, J. and Barton, M. A. and Bartos, I. and Bassiri, R. and Basti, A. and Bawaj, M. and Bayley, J. C. and Baylor, A. C. and Bazzan, M. and Bécsy, B. and Bedakihale, V. M. and Bejger, M. and Belahcene, I. and Benedetto, V. and Beniwal, D. and Benjamin, M. G. and Bennett, T. F. and Bentley, J. D. and BenYaala, M. and Bergamin, F. and Berger, B. K. and Bernuzzi, S. and Berry, C. P. L. and Bersanetti, D. and Bertolini, A. and Betzwieser, J. and Bhandare, R. and Bhandari, A. V. and Bhattacharjee, D. and Bhaumik, S. and Bidler, J. and Bilenko, I. A. and Billingsley, G. and Birney, R. and Birnholtz, O. and Biscans, S. and Bischi, M. and Biscoveanu, S. and Bisht, A. and Biswas, B. and Bitossi, M. and Bizouard, M.-A. and Blackburn, J. K. and Blackman, J. and Blair, C. D. and Blair, D. G. and Blair, R. M. and Bobba, F. and Bode, N. and Boer, M. and Bogaert, G. and Boldrini, M. and Bondu, F. and Bonilla, E. and Bonnand, R. and Booker, P. and Boom, B. A. and Bork, R. and Boschi, V. and Bose, N. and Bose, S. and Bossilkov, V. and Boudart, V. and Bouffanais, Y. and Bozzi, A. and Bradaschia, C. and Brady, P. R. and Bramley, A. and Branch, A. and Branchesi, M. and Brau, J. E. and Breschi, M. and Briant, T. and Briggs, J. H. and Brillet, A. and Brinkmann, M. and Brockill, P. and Brooks, A. F. and Brooks, J. and Brown, D. D. and Brunett, S. and Bruno, G. and Bruntz, R. and Bryant, J. and Buikema, A. and Bulik, T. and Bulten, H. J. and Buonanno, A. and Buscicchio, R. and Buskulic, D. and Byer, R. L. and Cadonati, L. and Caesar, M. and Cagnoli, G. and Cahillane, C. and Cain, H. W. and Calderón Bustillo, J. and Callaghan, J. D. and Callister, T. A. and Calloni, E. and Camp, J. B. and Canepa, M. and Cannavacciuolo, M. and Cannon, K. C. and Cao, H. and Cao, J. and Capote, E. and Carapella, G. and Carbognani, F. and Carlin, J. B. and Carney, M. F. and Carpinelli, M. and Carullo, G. and Carver, T. L. and Casanueva Diaz, J. and Casentini, C. and Castaldi, G. and Caudill, S. and Cavaglià, M. and Cavalier, F. and Cavalieri, R. and Cella, G. and Cerdá-Durán, P. and Cesarini, E. and Chaibi, W. and Chakravarti, K. and Champion, B. and Chan, C.-H. and Chan, C. and Chan, C. L. and Chandra, K. and Chanial, P. and Chao, S. and Charlton, P. and Chase, E. A. and Chassande-Mottin, E. and Chatterjee, D. and Chaturvedi, M. and Chen, A. and Chen, H. Y. and Chen, J. and Chen, X. and Chen, Y. and Chen, Z. and Cheng, H. and Cheong, C. K. and Cheung, H. Y. and Chia, H. Y. and Chiadini, F. and Chierici, R. and Chincarini, A. and Chiofalo, M. L. and Chiummo, A. and Cho, G. and Cho, H. S. and Choate, S. and Choudhary, R. K. and Choudhary, S. and Christensen, N. and Chu, Q. and Chua, S. and Chung, K. W. and Ciani, G. and Ciecielag, P. and Cieślar, M. and Cifaldi, M. and Ciobanu, A. A. and Ciolfi, R. and Cipriano, F. and Cirone, A. and Clara, F. and Clark, E. N. and Clark, J. A. and Clarke, L. and Clearwater, P. and Clesse, S. and Cleva, F. and Coccia, E. and Cohadon, P.-F. and Cohen, D. E. and Cohen, L. and Colleoni, M. and Collette, C. G. and Colpi, M. and Compton, C. M. and Constancio, M. and Conti, L. and Cooper, S. J. and Corban, P. and Corbitt, T. R. and Cordero-Carrión, I. and Corezzi, S. and Corley, K. R. and Cornish, N. and Corre, D. and Corsi, A. and Cortese, S. and Costa, C. A. and Cotesta, R. and Coughlin, M. W. and Coughlin, S. B. and Coulon, J.-P. and Countryman, S. T. and Cousins, B. and Couvares, P. and Covas, P. B. and Coward, D. M. and Cowart, M. J. and Coyne, D. C. and Coyne, R. and Creighton, J. D. E. and Creighton, T. D. and Criswell, A. W. and Croquette, M. and Crowder, S. G. and Cudell, J. R. and Cullen, T. J. and Cumming, A. and Cummings, R. and Cuoco, E. and Curyło, M. and Dal Canton, T. and Dálya, G. and Dana, A. and DaneshgaranBajastani, L. M. and D’Angelo, B. and Danilishin, S. L. and D’Antonio, S. and Danzmann, K. and Darsow-Fromm, C. and Dasgupta, A. and Datrier, L. E. H. and Dattilo, V. and Dave, I. and Davier, M. and Davies, G. S. and Davis, D. and Daw, E. J. and Dean, R. and DeBra, D. and Deenadayalan, M. and Degallaix, J. and De Laurentis, M. and Deléglise, S. and Del Favero, V. and De Lillo, F. and De Lillo, N. and Del Pozzo, W. and DeMarchi, L. M. and De Matteis, F. and D’Emilio, V. and Demos, N. and Dent, T. and Depasse, A. and De Pietri, R. and De Rosa, R. and De Rossi, C. and DeSalvo, R. and De Simone, R. and Dhurandhar, S. and Díaz, M. C. and Diaz-Ortiz, M. and Didio, N. A. and Dietrich, T. and Di Fiore, L. and Di Fronzo, C. and Di Giorgio, C. and Di Giovanni, F. and Di Girolamo, T. and Di Lieto, A. and Ding, B. and Di Pace, S. and Di Palma, I. and Di Renzo, F. and Divakarla, A. K. and Dmitriev, A. and Doctor, Z. and D’Onofrio, L. and Donovan, F. and Dooley, K. L. and Doravari, S. and Dorrington, I. and Drago, M. and Driggers, J. C. and Drori, Y. and Du, Z. and Ducoin, J.-G. and Dupej, P. and Durante, O. and D’Urso, D. and Duverne, P.-A. and Dwyer, S. E. and Easter, P. J. and Ebersold, M. and Eddolls, G. and Edelman, B. and Edo, T. B. and Edy, O. and Effler, A. and Eichholz, J. and Eikenberry, S. S. and Eisenmann, M. and Eisenstein, R. A. and Ejlli, A. and Errico, L. and Essick, R. C. and Estellés, H. and Estevez, D. and Etienne, Z. and Etzel, T. and Evans, M. and Evans, T. M. and Ewing, B. E. and Ezquiaga, J. M. and Fafone, V. and Fair, H. and Fairhurst, S. and Fan, X. and Farah, A. M. and Farinon, S. and Farr, B. and Farr, W. M. and Farrow, N. W. and Fauchon-Jones, E. J. and Favata, M. and Fays, M. and Fazio, M. A. and Feicht, J. and Fejer, M. M. and Feng, F. and Fenyvesi, E. and Ferguson, D. L. and Fernandez-Galiana, A. and Ferrante, I. and Ferreira, T. A. and Fidecaro, F. and Figura, P. and Fiori, I. and Fishbach, M. and Fisher, R. P. and Fittipaldi, R. and Fiumara, V. and Flaminio, R. and Floden, E. and Flynn, E. and Fong, H. and Font, J. A. and Fornal, B. and Forsyth, P. W. F. and Frankenthal, A. and Frasca, S. and Frasconi, F. and Frederick, C. and Frei, Z. and Freise, A. and Frey, R. and Fritschel, P. and Frolov, V. V. and Fronzé, G. G. and Fulda, P. and Fyffe, M. and Gabbard, H. A. and Gadre, B. U. and Gaebel, S. M. and Gair, J. R. and Gais, J. and Galaudage, S. and Gamba, R. and Ganapathy, D. and Ganguly, A. and Gaonkar, S. G. and Garaventa, B. and García-Núñez, C. and García-Quirós, C. and Garufi, F. and Gateley, B. and Gaudio, S. and Gayathri, V. and Gemme, G. and Gennai, A. and George, J. and Gergely, L. and Gewecke, P. and Ghonge, S. and Ghosh, Abhirup. and Ghosh, Archisman and Ghosh, Shaon and Ghosh, Shrobana and Ghosh, Sourath and Giacomazzo, B. and Giacoppo, L. and Giaime, J. A. and Giardina, K. D. and Gibson, D. R. and Gier, C. and Giesler, M. and Giri, P. and Gissi, F. and Glanzer, J. and Gleckl, A. E. and Godwin, P. and Goetz, E. and Goetz, R. and Gohlke, N. and Goncharov, B. and González, G. and Gopakumar, A. and Gosselin, M. and Gouaty, R. and Goyal, S. and Grace, B. and Grado, A. and Granata, M. and Granata, V. and Grant, A. and Gras, S. and Grassia, P. and Gray, C. and Gray, R. and Greco, G. and Green, A. C. and Green, R. and Gretarsson, A. M. and Gretarsson, E. M. and Griffith, D. and Griffiths, W. and Griggs, H. L. and Grignani, G. and Grimaldi, A. and Grimes, E. and Grimm, S. J. and Grote, H. and Grunewald, S. and Gruning, P. and Guerrero, J. G. and Guidi, G. M. and Guimaraes, A. R. and Guixé, G. and Gulati, H. K. and Guo, H.-K. and Guo, Y. and Gupta, Anchal and Gupta, Anuradha and Gupta, P. and Gustafson, E. K. and Gustafson, R. and Guzman, F. and Haegel, L. and Halim, O. and Hall, E. D. and Hamilton, E. Z. and Hammond, G. and Haney, M. and Hanks, J. and Hanna, C. and Hannam, M. D. and Hannuksela, O. A. and Hansen, H. and Hansen, T. J. and Hanson, J. and Harder, T. and Hardwick, T. and Haris, K. and Harms, J. and Harry, G. M. and Harry, I. W. and Hartwig, D. and Haskell, B. and Hasskew, R. K. and Haster, C.-J. and Haughian, K. and Hayes, F. J. and Healy, J. and Heidmann, A. and Heintze, M. C. and Heinze, J. and Heinzel, J. and Heitmann, H. and Hellman, F. and Hello, P. and Helmling-Cornell, A. F. and Hemming, G. and Hendry, M. and Heng, I. S. and Hennes, E. and Hennig, J. and Hennig, M. H. and Hernandez Vivanco, F. and Heurs, M. and Hild, S. and Hill, P. and Hines, A. S. and Hochheim, S. and Hofman, D. J. and Hohmann, J. N. and Holgado, A. M. and Holland, N. A. and Hollows, I. J. and Holmes, Z. J. and Holt, K. and Holz, D. E. and Hopkins, P. and Hough, J. and Howell, E. J. and Hoy, C. G. and Hoyland, D. and Hreibi, A. and Hsu, Y. and Huang, Y. and Hübner, M. T. and Huddart, A. D. and Huerta, E. A. and Hughey, B. and Hui, V. and Husa, S. and Huttner, S. H. and Huxford, R. and Huynh-Dinh, T. and Idzkowski, B. and Iess, A. and Inchauspe, H. and Ingram, C. and Intini, G. and Isi, M. and Isleif, K. and Iyer, B. R. and JaberianHamedan, V. and Jacqmin, T. and Jadhav, S. J. and Jadhav, S. P. and James, A. L. and Jan, A. Z. and Jani, K. and Janquart, J. and Janssens, K. and Janthalur, N. N. and Jaranowski, P. and Jariwala, D. and Jaume, R. and Jenkins, A. C. and Jeunon, M. and Jia, W. and Jiang, J. and Johns, G. R. and Jones, A. W. and Jones, D. I. and Jones, J. D. and Jones, P. and Jones, R. and Jonker, R. J. G. and Ju, L. and Junker, J. and Kalaghatgi, C. V. and Kalogera, V. and Kamai, B. and Kandhasamy, S. and Kang, G. and Kanner, J. B. and Kao, Y. and Kapadia, S. J. and Kapasi, D. P. and Karat, S. and Karathanasis, C. and Karki, S. and Kashyap, R. and Kasprzack, M. and Kastaun, W. and Katsanevas, S. and Katsavounidis, E. and Katzman, W. and Kaur, T. and Kawabe, K. and Kéfélian, F. and Keitel, D. and Key, J. S. and Khadka, S. and Khalili, F. Y. and Khan, I. and Khan, S. and Khazanov, E. A. and Khetan, N. and Khursheed, M. and Kijbunchoo, N. and Kim, C. and Kim, J. C. and Kim, K. and Kim, W. S. and Kim, Y.-M. and Kimball, C. and King, P. J. and Kinley-Hanlon, M. and Kirchhoff, R. and Kissel, J. S. and Kleybolte, L. and Klimenko, S. and Knee, A. M. and Knowles, T. D. and Knyazev, E. and Koch, P. and Koekoek, G. and Koley, S. and Kolitsidou, P. and Kolstein, M. and Komori, K. and Kondrashov, V. and Kontos, A. and Koper, N. and Korobko, M. and Kovalam, M. and Kozak, D. B. and Kringel, V. and Krishnendu, N. V. and Królak, A. and Kuehn, G. and Kuei, F. and Kumar, A. and Kumar, P. and Kumar, Rahul and Kumar, Rakesh and Kuns, K. and Kwang, S. and Laghi, D. and Lalande, E. and Lam, T. L. and Lamberts, A. and Landry, M. and Lane, B. B. and Lang, R. N. and Lange, J. and Lantz, B. and La Rosa, I. and Lartaux-Vollard, A. and Lasky, P. D. and Laxen, M. and Lazzarini, A. and Lazzaro, C. and Leaci, P. and Leavey, S. and Lecoeuche, Y. K. and Lee, H. M. and Lee, H. W. and Lee, J. and Lee, K. and Lehmann, J. and Lemaître, A. and Leon, E. and Leroy, N. and Letendre, N. and Levin, Y. and Leviton, J. N. and Li, A. K. Y. and Li, B. and Li, J. and Li, T. G. F. and Li, X. and Linde, F. and Linker, S. D. and Linley, J. N. and Littenberg, T. B. and Liu, J. and Liu, K. and Liu, X. and Llorens-Monteagudo, M. and Lo, R. K. L. and Lockwood, A. and Lollie, M. L. and London, L. T. and Longobardo, A. and Lopez, D. and Lorenzini, M. and Loriette, V. and Lormand, M. and Losurdo, G. and Lough, J. D. and Lousto, C. O. and Lovelace, G. and Lück, H. and Lumaca, D. and Lundgren, A. P. and Macas, R. and MacInnis, M. and Macleod, D. M. and MacMillan, I. A. O. and Macquet, A. and Magaña Hernandez, I. and Magaña-Sandoval, F. and Magazzù, C. and Magee, R. M. and Maggiore, R. and Majorana, E. and Makarem, C. and Maksimovic, I. and Maliakal, S. and Malik, A. and Man, N. and Mandic, V. and Mangano, V. and Mango, J. L. and Mansell, G. L. and Manske, M. and Mantovani, M. and Mapelli, M. and Marchesoni, F. and Marion, F. and Mark, Z. and Márka, S. and Márka, Z. and Markakis, C. and Markosyan, A. S. and Markowitz, A. and Maros, E. and Marquina, A. and Marsat, S. and Martelli, F. and Martin, I. W. and Martin, R. 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M. and Meylahn, F. and Mhaske, A. and Miani, A. and Miao, H. and Michaloliakos, I. and Michel, C. and Middleton, H. and Milano, L. and Miller, A. L. and Millhouse, M. and Mills, J. C. and Milotti, E. and Milovich-Goff, M. C. and Minazzoli, O. and Minenkov, Y. and Mir, Ll. M. and Mishkin, A. and Mishra, C. and Mishra, T. and Mistry, T. and Mitra, S. and Mitrofanov, V. P. and Mitselmakher, G. and Mittleman, R. and Mo, Geoffrey and Mogushi, K. and Mohapatra, S. R. P. and Mohite, S. R. and Molina, I. and Molina-Ruiz, M. and Mondin, M. and Montani, M. and Moore, C. J. and Moraru, D. and Morawski, F. and More, A. and Moreno, C. and Moreno, G. and Morisaki, S. and Mours, B. and Mow-Lowry, C. M. and Mozzon, S. and Muciaccia, F. and Mukherjee, Arunava and Mukherjee, D. and Mukherjee, Soma and Mukherjee, Subroto and Mukund, N. and Mullavey, A. and Munch, J. and Muñiz, E. A. and Murray, P. G. and Musenich, R. and Nadji, S. L. and Nagar, A. and Nardecchia, I. and Naticchioni, L. and Nayak, B. and Nayak, R. K. and Neil, B. F. and Neilson, J. and Nelemans, G. and Nelson, T. J. N. and Nery, M. and Neunzert, A. and Ng, K. Y. and Ng, S. W. S. and Nguyen, C. and Nguyen, P. and Nguyen, T. and Nicholson, S. A. and Nissanke, S. and Nocera, F. and Noh, M. and Norman, M. and North, C. and Nuttall, L. K. and Oberling, J. and O’Brien, B. D. and O’Dell, J. and Oganesyan, G. and Oh, J. J. and Oh, S. H. and Ohme, F. and Ohta, H. and Okada, M. A. and Olivetto, C. and Oram, R. and O’Reilly, B. and Ormiston, R. G. and Ormsby, N. D. and Ortega, L. F. and O’Shaughnessy, R. and O’Shea, E. and Ossokine, S. and Osthelder, C. and Ottaway, D. J. and Overmier, H. and Pace, A. E. and Pagano, G. and Page, M. A. and Pagliaroli, G. and Pai, A. and Pai, S. A. and Palamos, J. R. and Palashov, O. and Palomba, C. and Panda, P. K. and Pang, P. T. H. and Pankow, C. and Pannarale, F. and Pant, B. 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C. and Wlodarczyk, T. and Woan, G. and Woehler, J. and Wofford, J. K. and Wong, I. C. F. and Wright, M. and Wu, D. S. and Wysocki, D. M. and Xiao, L. and Yamamoto, H. and Yang, F. W. and Yang, L. and Yang, Y. and Yang, Z. and Yap, M. J. and Yeeles, D. W. and Yelikar, A. B. and Yeung, M. C. and Ying, M. and Yoon, A. and Yu, Hang and Yu, Haocun and Zadrożny, A. and Zanolin, M. and Zelenova, T. and Zendri, J.-P. and Zevin, M. and Zhang, J. and Zhang, L. and Zhang, R. and Zhang, T. and Zhao, C. and Zhao, G. and Zhao, Y. and Zhou, Z. and Zhu, X. J. and Zimmerman, A. B. and Zucker, M. E. and Zweizig, J. (2021) Search for Lensing Signatures in the Gravitational-Wave Observations from the First Half of LIGO–Virgo’s Third Observing Run. Astrophysical Journal, 923 (1). Art. No. 14. ISSN 0004-637X. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac23db. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20211221-934100700

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Abstract

We search for signatures of gravitational lensing in the gravitational-wave signals from compact binary coalescences detected by Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) and Advanced Virgo during O3a, the first half of their third observing run. We study: (1) the expected rate of lensing at current detector sensitivity and the implications of a non-observation of strong lensing or a stochastic gravitational-wave background on the merger-rate density at high redshift; (2) how the interpretation of individual high-mass events would change if they were found to be lensed; (3) the possibility of multiple images due to strong lensing by galaxies or galaxy clusters; and (4) possible wave-optics effects due to point-mass microlenses. Several pairs of signals in the multiple-image analysis show similar parameters and, in this sense, are nominally consistent with the strong lensing hypothesis. However, taking into account population priors, selection effects, and the prior odds against lensing, these events do not provide sufficient evidence for lensing. Overall, we find no compelling evidence for lensing in the observed gravitational-wave signals from any of these analyses.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
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https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ac23dbDOIArticle
https://arxiv.org/abs/2105.06384arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Adhikari, R. X.0000-0002-5731-5076
Allocca, A.0000-0002-5288-1351
Amato, A.0000-0001-9557-651X
Anand, S.0000-0003-3768-7515
Ansoldi, S.0000-0002-5613-7693
Arai, K.0000-0001-8916-8915
Araya, M. C.0000-0002-6018-6447
Areeda, J. S.0000-0003-0266-7936
Arnaud, N.0000-0001-6589-8673
Ashton, G.0000-0001-7288-2231
Austin, C.0000-0001-5488-9480
Ballmer, S. W.0000-0003-2306-523X
Barish, B. C.0000-0001-6386-7371
Barsotti, L.0000-0001-9819-2562
Barton, M. A.0000-0002-9948-306X
Bartos, I.0000-0001-5607-3637
Bassiri, R.0000-0001-8171-6833
Berger, B. K.0000-0002-4845-8737
Bernuzzi, S.0000-0002-2334-0935
Berry, C. P. L.0000-0003-3870-7215
Betzwieser, J.0000-0003-1533-9229
Billingsley, G.0000-0002-4141-2744
Biscans, S.0000-0002-9635-7527
Biscoveanu, S.0000-0001-7616-7366
Bizouard, M.-A.0000-0002-4618-1674
Blackburn, J. K.0000-0002-3838-2986
Blackman, J.0000-0002-7113-0289
Blair, C. D.0000-0003-4566-6888
Bode, N.0000-0002-7101-9396
Brady, P. R.0000-0002-4611-9387
Branchesi, M.0000-0003-1643-0526
Brooks, A. F.0000-0003-4295-792X
Bryant, J.0000-0003-1627-9301
Buikema, A.0000-0001-9409-5757
Bulik, T.0000-0003-2045-4803
Byer, R. L.0000-0003-1331-0318
Cahillane, C.0000-0002-3888-314X
Calderón Bustillo, J.0000-0002-4171-5884
Callister, T. A.0000-0001-9892-177X
Canepa, M.0000-0002-5148-1233
Cannon, K. C.0000-0003-4068-6572
Caudill, S.0000-0002-8927-6673
Chase, E. A.0000-0003-1005-0792
Chen, Y.0000-0002-9730-9463
Christensen, N.0000-0002-6870-4202
Ciani, G.0000-0003-4258-9338
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Compton, C. M.0000-0002-8217-5749
Cooper, S. J.0000-0001-8114-3596
Cordero-Carrión, I.0000-0002-1985-1361
Cornish, N.0000-0002-7435-0869
Corsi, A.0000-0001-8104-3536
Coughlin, M. W.0000-0002-8262-2924
Countryman, S. T.0000-0003-0613-2760
Coyne, D. C.0000-0002-6427-3222
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Dálya, G.0000-0003-3258-5763
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De Matteis, F.0000-0001-7860-9754
Dooley, K. L.0000-0002-1636-0233
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Kissel, J. S.0000-0002-1702-9577
Kleybolte, L.0000-0003-2831-5533
Komori, K.0000-0002-4092-9602
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Kovalam, M.0000-0001-8143-9696
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Lovelace, G.0000-0002-7084-1070
Lück, H.0000-0001-9350-4846
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Macleod, D. M.0000-0002-1395-8694
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Mapelli, M.0000-0001-8799-2548
Márka, S.0000-0002-3957-1324
Markowitz, A.0000-0003-0223-2342
Martin, I. W.0000-0001-7300-9151
Martynov, D. V.0000-0003-0679-1344
Massinger, T. J.0000-0002-3429-5025
Masso-Reid, M.0000-0001-6177-8105
Matichard, F.0000-0001-8982-8418
McClelland, D. E.0000-0001-6210-5842
McCuller, L.0000-0003-0851-0593
McIver, J.0000-0003-0316-1355
McWilliams, S. T.0000-0003-2397-8290
Menendez-Vazquez, A.0000-0002-0828-8219
Meshkov, S.0000-0002-7973-5338
Meylahn, F.0000-0002-9556-142X
Miao, H.0000-0003-2879-5821
Mitselmakher, G.0000-0001-5745-3658
Mo, Geoffrey0000-0001-6331-112X
Morisaki, S.0000-0002-8445-6747
Mow-Lowry, C. M.0000-0002-0351-4555
Mozzon, S.0000-0002-8855-2509
Mukherjee, Arunava0000-0003-1274-5846
Mukund, N.0000-0002-8666-9156
Mullavey, A.0000-0002-8123-7338
Murray, P. G.0000-0002-8218-2404
Nicholson, S. A.0000-0002-1226-1828
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Pankow, C.0000-0002-1128-3662
Parker, W.0000-0002-7711-4423
Pele, A.0000-0002-1873-3769
Penn, S.0000-0003-4956-0853
Pfeiffer, H. P.0000-0001-9288-519X
Piendibene, M.0000-0003-2434-488X
Piergiovanni, F.0000-0001-8063-828X
Piotrzkowski, K.0000-0002-6226-957X
Pirello, M.0000-0002-2857-4642
Prokhorov, L.0000-0002-0869-185X
Punturo, M.0000-0001-8722-4485
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Quitzow-James, R.0000-0003-1233-633X
Raaijmakers, G.0000-0002-9397-786X
Ramirez, K. E.0000-0003-2194-7669
Reitze, D. H.0000-0002-5756-1111
Richardson, J. W.0000-0002-1472-4806
Riles, K.0000-0002-6418-5812
Rollins, J. G.0000-0002-9388-2799
Romero, A.0000-0002-4131-4108
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Rowan, S.0000-0002-0666-9907
Sachdev, S.0000-0002-2432-7070
Sanchez, L. E.0000-0001-6903-5736
Sathyaprakash, B. S.0000-0003-3845-7586
Savage, R. L.0000-0003-3317-1036
Scheel, M.0000-0001-6656-9134
Schnabel, R.0000-0003-2896-4218
Schutz, B. F.0000-0001-9487-6983
Schwartz, E.0000-0001-8922-7794
Shoemaker, D. H.0000-0002-4147-2560
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Singer, L. P.0000-0001-9898-5597
Slagmolen, B. J. J.0000-0002-2471-3828
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Smith, R. J. E.0000-0001-8516-3324
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Soni, S.0000-0003-3856-8534
Sorazu, B.0000-0002-6178-3198
Sordini, V.0000-0003-0885-824X
Stover, M.0000-0001-9331-2422
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Szczepańczyk, M. J.0000-0002-6167-6149
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Tanner, D. B.0000-0003-1940-4710
Thorne, K. A.0000-0001-7948-9619
Thrane, E.0000-0002-4418-3895
Tiwari, Shubhanshu0000-0003-1611-6625
Travasso, F.0000-0002-4653-6156
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Zucker, M. E.0000-0002-2544-1596
Zweizig, J.0000-0002-1521-3397
Additional Information:© 2021. The American Astronomical Society. Received 2021 May 13; revised 2021 July 19; accepted 2021 August 22; published 2021 December 10. This material is based upon work supported by National Science Foundation's LIGO Laboratory, which is a major facility fully funded by the National Science Foundation. The authors also gratefully acknowledge the support of the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) of the United Kingdom, the Max-Planck-Society (MPS), and the State of Niedersachsen/Germany for support of the construction of Advanced LIGO and construction and operation of the GEO600 detector. Additional support for Advanced LIGO was provided by the Australian Research Council. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), and the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research for the construction and operation of the Virgo detector and the creation and support of the European Gravitational Observatory (EGO) consortium. The authors also gratefully acknowledge research support from these agencies as well as by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research of India; the Department of Science and Technology, India; the Science & Engineering Research Board (SERB), India; the Ministry of Human Resource Development, India; the Spanish Agencia Estatal de Investigación; the Vicepresidència i Conselleria d'Innovació Recerca i Turisme and the Conselleria d'Educació i Universitat del Govern de les Illes Balears; the Conselleria d'Innovació Universitats; Ciència i Societat Digital de la Generalitat Valenciana and the CERCA Programme Generalitat de Catalunya, Spain; the National Science Centre of Poland and the Foundation for Polish Science (FNP); the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF); the Russian Foundation for Basic Research; the Russian Science Foundation; the European Commission; the European Regional Development Funds (ERDF); the Royal Society; the Scottish Funding Council; the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance; the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA); the French Lyon Institute of Origins (LIO); the Belgian Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FRS-FNRS); Actions de Recherche Concertées (ARC) and Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek—Vlaanderen (FWO), Belgium; the Paris Île-de-France Region; the National Research, Development and Innovation Office Hungary (NKFIH); the National Research Foundation of Korea; the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council Canada; Canadian Foundation for Innovation (CFI); the Brazilian Ministry of Science, Technology, and Innovations; the International Center for Theoretical Physics South American Institute for Fundamental Research (ICTP-SAIFR); the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong; the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC); the Leverhulme Trust; the Research Corporation; the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), Taiwan; the United States Department of Energy; the Kavli Foundation; and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the NSF, STFC, INFN, and CNRS for provisions of the computational resources. We would like to thank all of the essential workers who put their health at risk during the COVID-19 pandemic, without whom we would not have been able to complete this work. Software: Analyses in this paper made use of LALSuite (LIGO Scientific Collaboration & Virgo Collaboration 2018), the GstLAL (Cannon et al. 2012; Messick et al. 2017; Sachdev et al.2019; Hanna et al. 2020) and PyCBC (Usman et al. 2016; Nitz et al. 2018, 2019; Davies et al. 2020) pipelines; Bayesian inference with CPNest (Veitch et al. 2020), PyMultinest (Feroz et al. 2009, 2019), Bilby (Ashton et al. 2019; Romero-Shaw et al. 2020; Smith et al. 2020), and LALInference (Veitch et al. 2015); as well as the packages NumPy (Harris et al. 2020), SciPy (Virtanen et al. 2020), Astropy (Robitaille et al. 2013; Price-Whelan et al. 2018), IPython (Perez & Granger 2007), and ligo.skymap (Singer 2019). Plots were produced with Matplotlib (Hunter 2007), and Seaborn (Waskom et al. 2020).
Group:LIGO
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSFUNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Max-Planck-SocietyUNSPECIFIED
State of Niedersachsen/GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Australian Research CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)UNSPECIFIED
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (India)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Science and Technology (India)UNSPECIFIED
Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB)UNSPECIFIED
Agencia Estatal de InvestigaciónUNSPECIFIED
Vicepresidència i Conselleria d'Innovació Recerca i TurismeUNSPECIFIED
Conselleria d'Educació i Universitat del Govern de les Illes BalearsUNSPECIFIED
Conselleria d'Innovació Universitats, Ciència i Societat Digital de la Generalitat ValencianaUNSPECIFIED
Generalitat de CatalunyaUNSPECIFIED
National Science Centre (Poland)UNSPECIFIED
Foundation for Polish ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)UNSPECIFIED
Russian Foundation for Basic ResearchUNSPECIFIED
Russian Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
European CommissionUNSPECIFIED
European Regional Development FundUNSPECIFIED
Royal SocietyUNSPECIFIED
Scottish Funding CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Scottish Universities Physics AllianceUNSPECIFIED
Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA)UNSPECIFIED
Lyon Institute of Origins (LIO)UNSPECIFIED
Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Actions de Recherche Concertées (ARC)UNSPECIFIED
Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (FWO)UNSPECIFIED
Île-de-France RegionUNSPECIFIED
National Research, Development and Innovation Office (Hungary)UNSPECIFIED
National Research Foundation of KoreaUNSPECIFIED
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)UNSPECIFIED
Canada Foundation for InnovationUNSPECIFIED
Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovações e Comunicações (MCTIC)UNSPECIFIED
International Center for Theoretical Physics South American Institute for Fundamental Research (ICTP-SAIFR)UNSPECIFIED
Research Grants Council of Hong KongUNSPECIFIED
National Natural Science Foundation of ChinaUNSPECIFIED
Leverhulme TrustUNSPECIFIED
Research CorporationUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
Kavli FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Gravitational wave astronomy; Gravitational wave sources; Astrophysical black holes; Gravitational waves; Gravitational wave detectors; Gravitational lensing; Strong gravitational lensing; Weak gravitational lensing; Gravitational microlensing
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Gravitational wave astronomy (675); Gravitational wave sources (677); Astrophysical black holes (98); Gravitational waves (678); Gravitational wave detectors (676); Gravitational lensing (670)
DOI:10.3847/1538-4357/ac23db
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20211221-934100700
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20211221-934100700
Official Citation:R. Abbott et al 2021 ApJ 923 14
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:112593
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:26 Dec 2021 21:12
Last Modified:26 Dec 2021 21:12

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