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Point Absorber Limits to Future Gravitational-Wave Detectors

Jia, Wenxuan and Yamamoto, Hiroaki and Kuns, Kevin and Effler, Anamaria and Evans, Matthew and Fritschel, Peter and Abbott, R. and Adams, C. and Adhikari, R. X. and Ananyeva, A. and Appert, S. and Arai, K. and Areeda, J. S. and Asali, Y. and Aston, S. M. and Austin, C. and Baer, A. M. and Ball, M. and Ballmer, S. W. and Banagiri, S. and Barker, D. and Barsotti, L. and Bartlett, J. and Berger, B. K. and Betzwieser, J. and Bhattacharjee, D. and Billingsley, G. and Biscans, S. and Blair, C. D. and Blair, R. M. and Bode, N. and Booker, P. and Bork, R. and Bramley, A. and Brooks, A. F. and Brown, D. D. and Buikema, A. and Cahillane, C. and Cannon, K. C. and Chen, X. and Ciobanu, A. A. and Clara, F. and Compton, C. M. and Cooper, S. J. and Corley, K. R. and Countryman, S. T. and Covas, P. B. and Coyne, D. C. and Datrier, L. E. H. and Davis, D. and Di Fronzo, C. and Dooley, K. L. and Driggers, J. C. and Dupej, P. and Dwyer, S. E. and Etzel, T. and Evans, T. M. and Feicht, J. and Fernandez-Galiana, A. and Frolov, V. V. and Fulda, P. and Fyffe, M. and Giaime, J. A. and Giardina, K. D. and Godwin, P. and Goetz, E. and Gras, S. and Gray, C. and Gray, R. and Green, A. C. and Gustafson, E. K. and Gustafson, R. and Hall, E. D. and Hanks, J. and Hanson, J. and Hardwick, T. and Hasskew, R. K. and Heintze, M. C. and Helmling-Cornell, A. F. and Holland, N. A. and Jones, J. D. and Kandhasamy, S. and Karki, S. and Kasprzack, M. and Kawabe, K. and Kijbunchoo, N. and King, P. J. and Kissel, J. S. and Kumar, Rahul and Landry, M. and Lane, B. B. and Lantz, B. and Laxen, M. and Lecoeuche, Y. K. and Leviton, J. and Liu, J. and Lormand, M. and Lundgren, A. P. and Macas, R. and MacInnis, M. and Macleod, D. M. and Mansell, G. L. and Márka, S. and Márka, Z. and Martynov, D. V. and Mason, K. and Massinger, T. J. and Matichard, F. and Mavalvala, N. and McCarthy, R. and McClelland, D. E. and McCormick, S. and McCuller, L. and McIver, J. and McRae, T. and Mendell, G. and Merfeld, K. and Merilh, E. L. and Meylahn, F. and Mistry, T. and Mittleman, R. and Moreno, G. and Mow-Lowry, C. M. and Mozzon, S. and Mullavey, A. and Nelson, T. J. N. and Nguyen, P. and Nuttall, L. K. and Oberling, J. and Oram, Richard J. and Osthelder, C. and Ottaway, D. J. and Overmier, H. and Palamos, J. R. and Parker, W. and Payne, E. and Pele, A. and Penhorwood, R. and Perez, C. J. and Pirello, M. and Radkins, H. and Ramirez, K. E. and Richardson, J. W. and Riles, K. and Robertson, N. A. and Rollins, J. G. and Romel, C. L. and Romie, J. H. and Ross, M. P. and Ryan, K. and Sadecki, T. and Sanchez, E. J. and Sanchez, L. E. and Saravanan, T. R. and Savage, R. L. and Schaetzl, D. and Schnabel, R. and Schofield, R. M. S. and Schwartz, E. and Sellers, D. and Shaffer, T. and Sigg, D. and Slagmolen, B. J. J. and Smith, J. R. and Soni, S. and Sorazu, B. and Spencer, A. P. and Strain, K. A. and Sun, L. and Szczepańczyk, M. J. and Thomas, M. and Thomas, P. and Thorne, K. A. and Toland, K. and Torrie, C. I. and Traylor, G. and Tse, M. and Urban, A. L. and Vajente, G. and Valdes, G. and Vander-Hyde, D. C. and Veitch, P. J. and Venkateswara, K. and Venugopalan, G. and Viets, A. D. and Vo, T. and Vorvick, C. and Wade, M. and Ward, R. L. and Warner, J. and Weaver, B. and Weiss, R. and Whittle, C. and Willke, B. and Wipf, C. C. and Xiao, L. and Yu, Hang and Yu, Haocun and Zhang, L. and Zucker, M. E. and Zweizig, J. (2021) Point Absorber Limits to Future Gravitational-Wave Detectors. Physical Review Letters, 127 (24). Art. No. 241102. ISSN 0031-9007. doi:10.1103/physrevlett.127.241102.

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High-quality optical resonant cavities require low optical loss, typically on the scale of parts per million. However, unintended micron-scale contaminants on the resonator mirrors that absorb the light circulating in the cavity can deform the surface thermoelastically and thus increase losses by scattering light out of the resonant mode. The point absorber effect is a limiting factor in some high-power cavity experiments, for example, the Advanced LIGO gravitational-wave detector. In this Letter, we present a general approach to the point absorber effect from first principles and simulate its contribution to the increased scattering. The achievable circulating power in current and future gravitational-wave detectors is calculated statistically given different point absorber configurations. Our formulation is further confirmed experimentally in comparison with the scattered power in the arm cavity of Advanced LIGO measured by in situ photodiodes. The understanding presented here provides an important tool in the global effort to design future gravitational-wave detectors that support high optical power and thus reduce quantum noise.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Jia, Wenxuan0000-0002-5119-6328
Yamamoto, Hiroaki0000-0001-6919-9570
Kuns, Kevin0000-0003-0630-3902
Effler, Anamaria0000-0001-8242-3944
Evans, Matthew0000-0001-8459-4499
Adhikari, R. X.0000-0002-5731-5076
Arai, K.0000-0001-8916-8915
Austin, C.0000-0001-5488-9480
Barsotti, L.0000-0001-9819-2562
Betzwieser, J.0000-0003-1533-9229
Bhattacharjee, D.0000-0001-6623-9506
Billingsley, G.0000-0002-4141-2744
Biscans, S.0000-0002-9635-7527
Blair, C. D.0000-0003-4566-6888
Bode, N.0000-0002-7101-9396
Brooks, A. F.0000-0003-4295-792X
Buikema, A.0000-0001-9409-5757
Cahillane, C.0000-0002-3888-314X
Coyne, D. C.0000-0002-6427-3222
Davis, D.0000-0001-5620-6751
Feicht, J.0000-0001-5223-7091
Fernandez-Galiana, A.0000-0002-8940-9261
Fulda, P.0000-0003-2564-2045
Goetz, E.0000-0003-2666-721X
Kandhasamy, S.0000-0002-4825-6764
Kasprzack, M.0000-0003-4618-5939
Kawabe, K.0000-0001-5205-9109
Kijbunchoo, N.0000-0002-2874-1228
Kissel, J. S.0000-0002-1702-9577
Lantz, B.0000-0002-7404-4845
Laxen, M.0000-0001-7515-9639
MacInnis, M.0000-0001-8733-9207
Márka, S.0000-0002-3957-1324
Matichard, F.0000-0001-8982-8418
McCuller, L.0000-0003-0851-0593
McIver, J.0000-0003-0316-1355
Meylahn, F.0000-0002-9556-142X
Mozzon, S.0000-0002-8855-2509
Mullavey, A.0000-0002-8123-7338
Nguyen, P.0000-0001-9223-5541
Parker, W.0000-0002-7711-4423
Pele, A.0000-0002-1873-3769
Pirello, M.0000-0002-2857-4642
Richardson, J. W.0000-0002-1472-4806
Riles, K.0000-0002-6418-5812
Rollins, J. G.0000-0002-9388-2799
Sanchez, L. E.0000-0001-6903-5736
Schnabel, R.0000-0003-2896-4218
Schwartz, E.0000-0001-8922-7794
Sigg, D.0000-0003-4606-6526
Soni, S.0000-0003-3856-8534
Sorazu, B.0000-0002-6178-3198
Sun, L.0000-0001-7959-892X
Szczepańczyk, M. J.0000-0002-6167-6149
Tse, M.0000-0003-1510-4921
Vajente, G.0000-0002-7656-6882
Venugopalan, G.0000-0003-4414-9918
Vorvick, C.0000-0003-1591-3358
Wade, M.0000-0002-5703-4469
Weaver, B.0000-0002-2242-0327
Whittle, C.0000-0002-8833-7438
Willke, B.0000-0003-0524-2925
Xiao, L.0000-0003-2703-449X
Yu, Hang0000-0002-6011-6190
Yu, Haocun0000-0002-7597-098X
Zhang, L.0000-0002-0898-787X
Zucker, M. E.0000-0002-2544-1596
Zweizig, J.0000-0002-1521-3397
Additional Information:© 2021 American Physical Society. Received 22 September 2021; accepted 27 October 2021; published 7 December 2021. The author acknowledges the support of MathWorks Science Fellowship and Sloan Foundation, and thanks The MathWorks, Inc. for its generous computing support. Advanced LIGO was constructed by the California Institute of Technology and Massachusetts Institute of Technology with funding from the NSF and operates under Cooperative Agreement No. PHY-1764464. Advanced LIGO was built under Grant No. PHY-0823459.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:24
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20211221-760371100
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:112607
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:21 Dec 2021 21:29
Last Modified:21 Dec 2021 21:29

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