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Iterative Programming of Noisy Memory Cells

Horovitz, Michal and Yaakobi, Eitan and Gad, Eyal En and Bruck, Jehoshua (2022) Iterative Programming of Noisy Memory Cells. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 70 (2). pp. 769-782. ISSN 0090-6778. doi:10.1109/tcomm.2021.3130660.

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In this paper, we study a model that mimics the programming operation of memory cells. This model was first introduced by Lastras-Montano et al. for continuous-alphabet channels, and later by Bunte and Lapidoth for discrete memoryless channels (DMC). Under this paradigm we assume that cells are programmed sequentially and individually. The programming process is modeled as transmission over a channel, such that it is possible to read the cell state in order to determine its programming success, and in case of programming failure, to reprogram the cell again. Reprogramming a cell can reduce the bit error rate, however this comes with the price of increasing the overall programming time and thereby affecting the writing speed of the memory. An iterative programming scheme is an algorithm which specifies the number of attempts to program each cell. Given the programming channel and constraints on the average and maximum number of attempts to program a cell, we study programming schemes which maximize the number of bits that can be reliably stored in the memory. We extend the results by Bunte and Lapidoth and study this problem when the programming channel is either discrete-input memoryless symmetric channel (including the BSC,BEC, BI-AWGN) or the Z channel. For the BSC and the BEC our analysis is also extended for the case where the error probabilities on consecutive writes are not necessarily the same. Lastly, we also study a related model which is motivated by the synthesis process of DNA molecules.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription ItemConference Paper
Horovitz, Michal0000-0002-8036-0684
Yaakobi, Eitan0000-0002-9851-5234
Gad, Eyal En0000-0002-5717-9879
Bruck, Jehoshua0000-0001-8474-0812
Additional Information:© 2021 IEEE. Manuscript received February 12, 2021; revised September 15, 2021; accepted November 18, 2021. Date of publication November 25, 2021; date of current version February 17, 2022. Partial support was provided by NSF grants CCF-1717884 and CCF-1218005. An earlier version of this paper was presented in part at the IEEE Information Theory Workshop in August 2019 [DOI:10.1109/ITW44776.2019.8989404]. The associate editor coordinating the review of this article and approving it for publication was R. Venkataramanan.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Subject Keywords:Non-volatile memories, iterative programming, discrete-input memoryless symmetric channel, binary symmetric channel (BSC), binary erasure channel (BEC), Z channel
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220104-235424700
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Official Citation:M. Horovitz, E. Yaakobi, E. E. Gad and J. Bruck, "Iterative Programming of Noisy Memory Cells," in IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 769-782, Feb. 2022, doi: 10.1109/TCOMM.2021.3130660
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:112693
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:04 Jan 2022 23:24
Last Modified:02 Mar 2022 18:11

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