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Consequences of quantum noise control for the relaxation resonance frequency and phase noise in heterogeneous Silicon/III–V lasers

Kim, Dongwan and Harfouche, Mark and Wang, Huolei and Santis, Christos T. and Vilenchik, Yaakov and Satyan, Naresh and Rakuljic, George and Yariv, Amnon (2022) Consequences of quantum noise control for the relaxation resonance frequency and phase noise in heterogeneous Silicon/III–V lasers. Scientific Reports, 12 . Art. No. 312. ISSN 2045-2322. PMCID PMC8748436. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-03314-8. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20220111-40919600

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Abstract

We have recently introduced a new semiconductor laser design which is based on an extreme, 99%, reduction of the laser mode absorption losses. In previous reports, we showed that this was achieved by a laser mode design which confines the great majority of the modal energy (> 99%) in a low-loss Silicon guiding layer rather than in highly-doped, thus lossy, III–V p⁺ and n⁺ layers, which is the case with traditional III–V lasers. The resulting reduced electron-field interaction was shown to lead to a commensurate reduction of the spontaneous emission rate by the excited conduction band electrons into the laser mode and thus to a reduction of the frequency noise spectral density of the laser field often characterized by the Schawlow–Townes linewidth. In this paper, we demonstrate theoretically and present experimental evidence of yet another major beneficial consequence of the new laser design: a near total elimination of the contribution of amplitude-phase coupling (the Henry αα parameter) to the frequency noise at “high” frequencies. This is due to an order of magnitude lowering of the relaxation resonance frequency of the laser. Here, we show that the practical elimination of this coupling enables yet another order of magnitude reduction of the frequency noise at high frequencies, resulting in a quantum-limited frequency noise spectral density of 130 Hz22/Hz (linewidth of 0.4 kHz) for frequencies beyond the relaxation resonance frequency 680 MHz. This development is of key importance in the development of semiconductor lasers with higher coherence, particularly in the context of integrated photonics with a small laser footprint without requiring any sort of external cavity.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-03314-8DOIArticle
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8748436/PubMed CentralArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Kim, Dongwan0000-0002-5661-2503
Harfouche, Mark0000-0002-4657-4603
Wang, Huolei0000-0001-6245-8090
Santis, Christos T.0000-0001-8636-1613
Additional Information:© The Author(s) 2022. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. Received 04 July 2021; Accepted 25 November 2021; Published 10 January 2022. This work was supported by US Army Research Office (ARO) (W911NF-14-P-0020, W911NF-15-1-0584, W911NF-16-C-0026, W911NF-16-C-0105) and Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) (N66001-14-1-4062). The authors would like to thank the Kavli Nanoscience Institute (KNI) at Caltech for providing fabrication facilities for this work. These authors contributed equally: Dongwan Kim, Mark Harfouche and Huolei Wang. Author Contributions: A.Y. conceived the project, directed it, and acquired funding. D.K. and M.H. designed the laser. D.K and H.W. performed the device fabrication. D.K., M.H., and H.W. conducted the measurements for the laser characteristics. D.K. and M.H. wrote the manuscript with inputs from all authors. C.S., Y.V., N.S. G.R. were instrumental in conceiving the design of the lasers and experimental setup. The authors declare no competing interests.
Group:Kavli Nanoscience Institute
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Army Research Office (ARO)W911NF-14-P-0020
Army Research Office (ARO)W911NF-15-1-0584
Army Research Office (ARO)W911NF-16-C-0026
Army Research Office (ARO)W911NF-16-C-0105
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)N66001-14-1-4062
Subject Keywords:Lasers, LEDs and light sources; Optical physics
PubMed Central ID:PMC8748436
DOI:10.1038/s41598-021-03314-8
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220111-40919600
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20220111-40919600
Official Citation:Kim, D., Harfouche, M., Wang, H. et al. Consequences of quantum noise control for the relaxation resonance frequency and phase noise in heterogeneous Silicon/III–V lasers. Sci Rep 12, 312 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-03314-8
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:112828
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:11 Jan 2022 21:59
Last Modified:18 Jan 2022 18:16

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