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TOI-712: A System of Adolescent Mini-Neptunes Extending to the Habitable Zone

Vach, Sydney and Quinn, Samuel N. and Vanderburg, Andrew and Kane, Stephen R. and Collins, Karen A. and Kraus, Adam L. and Zhou, George and Medina, Amber A. and Schwarz, Richard P. and Collins, Kevin I. and Conti, Dennis M. and Stockdale, Chris and Massey, Bob and Suarez, Olga and Guillot, Tristan and Mékarnia, Djamel and Abe, Lyu and Dransfield, Georgina and Crouzet, Nicolas and Triaud, Amaury H. M. J. and Schmider, François-Xavier and Agabi, Abelkrim and Buttu, Marco and Hellier, Coel and Furlan, Elise and Gnilka, Crystal L. and Howell, Steve B. and Ziegler, Carl and Briceño, César and Law, Nicholas and Mann, Andrew W. and Rudat, Alexander and Colón, Knicole D. and Rose, Mark E. and Kunimoto, Michelle and Günther, Maximilian N. and Charbonneau, David and Ciardi, David R. and Ricker, George R. and Vanderspek, Roland K. and Latham, David W. and Seager, Sara and Winn, Joshua N. and Jenkins, Jon M. (2022) TOI-712: A System of Adolescent Mini-Neptunes Extending to the Habitable Zone. Astronomical Journal, 164 (2). Art. No. 71. ISSN 1538-3881. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/ac7954.

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As an all-sky survey, NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission is able to detect the brightest and rarest types of transiting planetary systems, including young planets that enable study of the evolutionary processes that occur within the first billion years. Here we report the discovery of a young, multiplanet system orbiting the bright K4.5V star, TOI-712 (V = 10.838, M⋆ = 0.733^(+0.026)_(−0.025) M_⊙, R⋆ = 0.674 ± 0.016 R⊙, T_(eff) = 4622^(+61)_(−60) K). From the TESS light curve, we measure a rotation period of 12.48 days and derive an age between about 500 Myr and 1.1 Gyr. The photometric observations reveal three transiting mini-Neptunes (R_b = 2.049^(+0.120)_(−0.080) R_⊕, R_c = 2.701^(+0.092)_(−0.082) R_⊕, R_d = 2.474^(+0.090)_(−0.082) R_⊕), with orbital periods of P_b = 9.531 days, P_c = 51.699 days, and P_d = 84.839 days. After modeling the three-planet system, an additional Earth-sized candidate is identified, TOI-712.05 (P = 4.32 days, R_P = 0.81 ± 0.11 R_⊕). We calculate that the habitable zone falls between 0.339 and 0.844 au (82.7 and 325.3 days), placing TOI-712 d near its inner edge. Among planetary systems harboring temperate planets, TOI-712 (T = 9.9) stands out as a relatively young star bright enough to motivate further characterization.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Vach, Sydney0000-0001-9158-9276
Quinn, Samuel N.0000-0002-8964-8377
Vanderburg, Andrew0000-0001-7246-5438
Kane, Stephen R.0000-0002-7084-0529
Collins, Karen A.0000-0001-6588-9574
Kraus, Adam L.0000-0001-9811-568X
Zhou, George0000-0002-4891-3517
Medina, Amber A.0000-0001-8726-3134
Schwarz, Richard P.0000-0001-8227-1020
Collins, Kevin I.0000-0003-2781-3207
Conti, Dennis M.0000-0003-2239-0567
Stockdale, Chris0000-0003-2163-1437
Massey, Bob0000-0001-8879-7138
Suarez, Olga0000-0002-3503-3617
Guillot, Tristan0000-0002-7188-8428
Mékarnia, Djamel0000-0001-5000-7292
Abe, Lyu0000-0002-0856-4527
Dransfield, Georgina0000-0002-3937-630X
Crouzet, Nicolas0000-0001-7866-8738
Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.0000-0002-5510-8751
Schmider, François-Xavier0000-0003-3914-3546
Hellier, Coel0000-0002-3439-1439
Furlan, Elise0000-0001-9800-6248
Gnilka, Crystal L.0000-0003-2519-6161
Howell, Steve B.0000-0002-2532-2853
Ziegler, Carl0000-0002-0619-7639
Briceño, César0000-0001-7124-4094
Law, Nicholas0000-0001-9380-6457
Mann, Andrew W.0000-0003-3654-1602
Colón, Knicole D.0000-0001-8020-7121
Rose, Mark E.0000-0003-4724-745X
Kunimoto, Michelle0000-0001-9269-8060
Günther, Maximilian N.0000-0002-3164-9086
Charbonneau, David0000-0002-9003-484X
Ciardi, David R.0000-0002-5741-3047
Ricker, George R.0000-0003-2058-6662
Vanderspek, Roland K.0000-0001-6763-6562
Latham, David W.0000-0001-9911-7388
Seager, Sara0000-0002-6892-6948
Winn, Joshua N.0000-0002-4265-047X
Jenkins, Jon M.0000-0002-4715-9460
Additional Information:© 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2021 November 2; revised 2022 June 10; accepted 2022 June 14; published 2022 July 27. We thank Adina Feinstein for helpful discussion regarding stellar flares in TESS data. S.V. and S.N.Q. acknowledge support from the TESS Guest Investigator Program G03268 and NASA grant No. 80NSSC21K1056. M.N.G. acknowledges support from the European Space Agency (ESA) as an ESA Research Fellow. This work makes use of observations from the LCOGT network. Part of the LCOGT telescope time was granted by NOIRLab through the Mid-Scale Innovations Program (MSIP). MSIP is funded by NSF. Some of the observations in the paper made use of the High-Resolution Imaging instrument Zorro obtained under Gemini LLP Proposal No. GN/S-2021A-LP-105. Zorro was funded by the NASA Exoplanet Exploration Program and built at the NASA Ames Research Center by Steve B. Howell, Nic Scott, Elliott P. Horch, and Emmett Quigley. Zorro was mounted on the Gemini North (and/or South) telescope of the international Gemini Observatory, a program of NSF's OIR Lab, which is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation, on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), National Research Council (Canada), Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (Argentina), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovaçõese Comunicações (Brazil), and Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (Republic of Korea). This research received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (grant agreement No. 803193/BEBOP) and from the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC; grant No. ST/S00193X/1). This work makes use of observations from the ASTEP telescope. ASTEP benefited from the support of the French and Italian polar agencies IPEV and PNRA in the framework of the Concordia station program. Funding for the TESS mission is provided by NASA's Science Mission directorate. We acknowledge the use of TESS public data from pipelines at the TESS Science Office and at the TESS Science Processing Operations Center. Resources supporting this work were provided by the NASA High-End Computing (HEC) Program through the NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) Division at Ames Research Center for the production of the SPOC data products. This research has made use of the Exoplanet Follow-up Observation Program website, which is operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under the Exoplanet Exploration Program. This paper includes data collected by the TESS mission, which are publicly available from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) at the Space Telescope Science Institute. The specific observations analyzed can be accessed via This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (, processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. Facilities: TESS - , LCOGT - , ASTEP - , Hazelwood. - Software: AstroImageJ (Collins et al. 2017), astropy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013), batman (Kreidberg 2015) EXOFASTv2 (Eastman et al. 2019), exoplanet (Foreman-Mackey 2019), Matplotlib (Hunter 2007), Numpy (van der Walt et al. 2011), TAPIR (Jensen 2013).
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
European Space Agency (ESA)UNSPECIFIED
Gemini PartnershipUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)803193
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/S00193X/1
Institut polaire français Paul-Émile Victor (IPEV)UNSPECIFIED
Programma Nazionale di Ricerche in Antartide (PNRA)UNSPECIFIED
Gaia Multilateral AgreementUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Exoplanets; Mini Neptunes; Exoplanet evolution; Exoplanet formation; Transits; Transit photometry; Exoplanet dynamics; Exoplanet systems
Issue or Number:2
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Exoplanets (498); Mini Neptunes (1063); Exoplanet evolution (491); Exoplanet formation (492); Transits (1711); Transit photometry (1709); Exoplanet dynamics (490); Exoplanet systems (484)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220113-182240625
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Sydney Vach et al 2022 AJ 164 71
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:112877
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:13 Jan 2022 21:06
Last Modified:03 Aug 2022 21:09

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