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TOI 560 : Two Transiting Planets Orbiting a K Dwarf Validated with iSHELL, PFS and HIRES RVs

El Mufti, Mohammed and Plavchan, Peter P. and Isaacson, Howard and Cale, Bryson L. and Feliz, Dax L. and Reefe, Michael A. and Hellier, Coel and Stassun, Keivan and Eastman, Jason and Polanski, Alex and Crossfield, Ian J. M. and Gaidos, Eric and Kostov, Veselin and Villaseñor, Joel and Schlieder, Joshua E. and Bouma, Luke G. and Collins, Kevin I. and Wittrock, Justin M. and Zohrabi, Farzaneh and Lee, Rena A. and Sohani, Ahmad and Berberian, John and Vermilion, David and Newman, Patrick and Geneser, Claire and Tanner, Angelle and Batalha, Natalie M. and Dressing, Courtney and Fulton, Benjamin and Howard, Andrew W. and Huber, Daniel and Kane, Stephen R. and Petigura, Erik A. and Robertson, Paul and Roy, Arpita and Weiss, Lauren M. and Behmard, Aida and Beard, Corey and Chontos, Ashley and Dai, Fei and Dalba, Paul A. and Fetherolf, Tara and Giacalone, Steven and Hill, Michelle L. and Hirsch, Lea A. and Holcomb, Rae and Lubin, Jack and Mayo, Andrew and Movcnik, Teo and Akana Murphy, Joseph M. and Rosenthal, Lee J. and Rubenzahl, Ryan A. and Scarsdale, Nicholas and Stockdale, Christopher and Collins, Karen and Cloutier, Ryan and Relles, Howard and Tan, Thiam-Guan and Scott, Nicholas J. and Hartman, Zach and Matthews, Elisabeth and Ciardi, David and Gonzales, Erica and Matson, Rachel A. and Beichman, Charles and Furlan, E. and Gnilka, Crystal L. and Howell, Steve B. and Ziegler, Carl and Briceño, César and Law, Nicholas and Mann, Andrew W. and Rabus, Markus and Johnson, Marshall C. and Christiansen, Jessie and Kreidberg, Laura and Werner, Michael W. and Berardo, David Anthony and Deming, Drake and Gorjian, Varoujan and Morales, Farisa Y. and Benneke, Björn and Dragomir, Diana and Wittenmyer, Robert A. and Ballard, Sarah and Bowler, Brendan P. and Horner, Jonathan and Kielkopf, John and Liu, Huigen and Shporer, Avi and Tinney, C. G. and Zhang, Hui and Wright, Duncan J. and Addison, Brett C. and Mengel, Matthew W. and Okumura, Jack (2021) TOI 560 : Two Transiting Planets Orbiting a K Dwarf Validated with iSHELL, PFS and HIRES RVs. . (Unpublished)

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We validate the presence of a two-planet system orbiting the 0.2--1.4 Gyr K4 dwarf TOI 560 (HD 73583). The system consists of an inner moderately eccentric transiting mini-Neptune (TOI 560 b, P = 6.397438 ± 0.000037 days, e = 0.294^(0.13)_(0.062)) initially discovered in the Sector 8 TESS mission observations, and a transiting mini-Neptune (TOI 560 c, P = 18.8779 ± 0.0016 days) discovered in the Sector 34 observations, in a rare 1:3 orbital resonance. We utilize photometric data from TESS Spitzer, and ground-based follow-up observations to confirm the ephemerides and period of the transiting planets and vet false positive scenarios. We obtain follow-up spectroscopy and corresponding precise radial velocities (RVs) with the iSHELL spectrograph at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility and the HIRES Spectrograph at Keck Observatory to validate the planetary nature of these signals, which we combine with published PFS RVs from Magellan Observatory. We place upper limits on the masses of both planets of <2.1 and <4.1 M_(Nep) for b and c, respectively. We apply a Gaussian Processes (GP) model to the TESS light curves to place priors on a chromatic radial velocity GP model to constrain the stellar activity of the TOI 560 host star. TOI 560 is a nearby moderately young multi-planet system with two planets suitable for atmospheric characterization with James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and other upcoming missions. In particular, it will undergo six transit pairs separated by <6 hours before June 2027.

Item Type:Report or Paper (Discussion Paper)
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
El Mufti, Mohammed0000-0001-8364-2903
Plavchan, Peter P.0000-0002-8864-1667
Isaacson, Howard0000-0002-0531-1073
Cale, Bryson L.0000-0001-6279-0595
Feliz, Dax L.0000-0002-2457-7889
Reefe, Michael A.0000-0003-4701-8497
Hellier, Coel0000-0002-3439-1439
Stassun, Keivan0000-0002-3481-9052
Eastman, Jason0000-0003-3773-5142
Polanski, Alex0000-0001-7047-8681
Crossfield, Ian J. M.0000-0002-1835-1891
Gaidos, Eric0000-0002-5258-6846
Kostov, Veselin0000-0001-9786-1031
Schlieder, Joshua E.0000-0001-5347-7062
Bouma, Luke G.0000-0002-0514-5538
Collins, Kevin I.0000-0003-2781-3207
Wittrock, Justin M.0000-0002-7424-9891
Zohrabi, Farzaneh0000-0003-2872-9883
Lee, Rena A.0000-0001-7058-4134
Vermilion, David0000-0002-4501-564X
Geneser, Claire0000-0001-9596-8820
Tanner, Angelle0000-0002-0786-7307
Batalha, Natalie M.0000-0002-7030-9519
Dressing, Courtney0000-0001-8189-0233
Fulton, Benjamin0000-0003-3504-5316
Howard, Andrew W.0000-0001-8638-0320
Huber, Daniel0000-0001-8832-4488
Kane, Stephen R.0000-0002-7084-0529
Petigura, Erik A.0000-0003-0967-2893
Robertson, Paul0000-0003-0149-9678
Roy, Arpita0000-0001-8127-5775
Weiss, Lauren M.0000-0002-3725-3058
Behmard, Aida0000-0003-0012-9093
Beard, Corey0000-0001-7708-2364
Chontos, Ashley0000-0003-1125-2564
Dai, Fei0000-0002-8958-0683
Dalba, Paul A.0000-0002-4297-5506
Fetherolf, Tara0000-0002-3551-279X
Hill, Michelle L.0000-0002-0139-4756
Hirsch, Lea A.0000-0001-8058-7443
Holcomb, Rae0000-0002-5034-9476
Lubin, Jack0000-0001-8342-7736
Mayo, Andrew0000-0002-7216-2135
Akana Murphy, Joseph M.0000-0001-8898-8284
Rosenthal, Lee J.0000-0001-8391-5182
Rubenzahl, Ryan A.0000-0003-3856-3143
Scarsdale, Nicholas0000-0003-3623-7280
Stockdale, Christopher0000-0003-2163-1437
Collins, Karen0000-0001-6588-9574
Cloutier, Ryan0000-0001-5383-9393
Tan, Thiam-Guan0000-0001-5603-6895
Scott, Nicholas J.0000-0003-1038-9702
Hartman, Zach0000-0003-4236-6927
Matthews, Elisabeth0000-0003-0593-1560
Ciardi, David0000-0002-5741-3047
Gonzales, Erica0000-0002-9329-2190
Matson, Rachel A.0000-0001-7233-7508
Beichman, Charles0000-0002-5627-5471
Furlan, E.0000-0001-9800-6248
Gnilka, Crystal L.0000-0003-2519-6161
Howell, Steve B.0000-0002-2532-2853
Ziegler, Carl0000-0002-0619-7639
Briceño, César0000-0001-7124-4094
Law, Nicholas0000-0001-9380-6457
Mann, Andrew W.0000-0003-3654-1602
Rabus, Markus0000-0003-2935-7196
Johnson, Marshall C.0000-0002-5099-8185
Christiansen, Jessie0000-0002-8035-4778
Kreidberg, Laura0000-0003-0514-1147
Werner, Michael W.0000-0003-4990-189X
Berardo, David Anthony0000-0001-6298-412X
Deming, Drake0000-0001-5727-4094
Gorjian, Varoujan0000-0002-8990-2101
Morales, Farisa Y.0000-0001-9414-3851
Benneke, Björn0000-0001-5578-1498
Dragomir, Diana0000-0003-2313-467X
Wittenmyer, Robert A.0000-0001-9957-9304
Ballard, Sarah0000-0002-3247-5081
Bowler, Brendan P.0000-0003-2649-2288
Horner, Jonathan0000-0002-1160-7970
Kielkopf, John0000-0003-0497-2651
Liu, Huigen0000-0001-5162-1753
Shporer, Avi0000-0002-1836-3120
Tinney, C. G.0000-0002-7595-0970
Zhang, Hui0000-0003-3491-6394
Wright, Duncan J.0000-0001-7294-5386
Addison, Brett C.0000-0003-3216-0626
Mengel, Matthew W.0000-0002-7830-6822
Okumura, Jack0000-0002-4876-8540
Additional Information:MM and PPP acknowledge support from NASA (Exoplanet Research Program Award #80NSSC20K0251, TESS Cycle 3 Guest Investigator Program Award #80NSSC21K0349, JPL Research and Technology Development, and Keck Observatory Data Analysis) and the NSF (Astronomy and Astrophysics Grants #1716202 and 2006517), and the Mt Cuba Astronomical Foundation. This paper includes data collected by the NASA TESS mission that are publicly available from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). Funding for the TESS mission is provided by NASA's Science Mission Directorate. We acknowledge the use of public TESS data from pipelines at the TESS Science Office and at the TESS Science Processing Operations Center. The authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Maunakea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community, where the iSHELL and HIRES observations were recorded. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. The authors also wish to thank the California Planet Search (CPS) collaboration for carrying out the HIRES observations recorded in 2020 presented in this work. This work includes observations obtained at the international Gemini Observatory, a program of NSF's NOIRLab, which is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. Some of the observations in the paper made use of the High-Resolution Imaging instrument Zorro obtained under Gemini LLP Proposal Number: GN/S-2021A-LP-105. Zorro was funded by the NASA Exoplanet Exploration Program and built at the NASA Ames Research Center by Steve B. Howell, Nic Scott, Elliott P. Horch, and Emmett Quigley. On behalf of the Gemini Observatory partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), National Research Council (Canada), Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (Argentina), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovaçóes e Comunicaçóes (Brazil), and Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (Republic of Korea). Data were collected as part of program GN-2019A-LP-101. Based on data collected under the NGTS project at the ESO La Silla Paranal Observatory. The NGTS facility is operated by the consortium institutes with support from the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) projects ST/M001962/1 and ST/S002642/1. This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (, processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. This paper is based on observations obtained from the Las Campanas Remote Observatory that is a partnership between Carnegie Observatories, The Astro-Physics Corporation, Howard Hedlund, Michael Long, Dave Jurasevich, and SSC Observatories. MINERVA-Australis is supported by Australian Research Council LIEF Grant LE160100001, Discovery Grant DP180100972, Mount Cuba Astronomical Foundation, and institutional partners University of Southern Queensland, UNSW Sydney, MIT, Nanjing University, George Mason University, University of Louisville, University of California Riverside, University of Florida, and The University of Texas at Austin. We respectfully acknowledge the traditional custodians of all lands throughout Australia, and recognise their continued cultural and spiritual connection to the land, waterways, cosmos, and community. We pay our deepest respects to all Elders, ancestors and descendants of the Giabal, Jarowair, and Kambuwal nations, upon whose lands the Minerva-Australis facility at Mt Kent is situated. This work makes use of observations from the LCOGT network. Part of the LCOGT telescope time was granted by NOIRLab through the Mid-Scale Innovations Program (MSIP). MSIP is funded by NSF. E.A.P. acknowledges the support of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. L.M.W. is supported by the Beatrice Watson Parrent Fellowship and NASA ADAP Grant 80NSSC19K0597. A.C. is supported by the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship, grant No. DGE 1842402. D.H. acknowledges support from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (80NSSC19K0379), and the National Science Foundation (AST-1717000). I.J.M.C. acknowledges support from the NSF through grant AST-1824644. P.D. acknowledges support from a National Science Foundation Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship under award AST-1903811. A.B. is supported by the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship, grant No. DGE 1745301. R.A.R. is supported by the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship, grant No. DGE 1745301. C. D. D. acknowledges the support of the Hellman Family Faculty Fund, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the David & Lucile Packard Foundation, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration via the TESS Guest Investigator Program (80NSSC18K1583). J.M.A.M. is supported by the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship, grant No. DGE-1842400. J.M.A.M. also acknowledges the LSSTC Data Science Fellowship Program, which is funded by LSSTC, NSF Cybertraining Grant No. 1829740, the Brinson Foundation, and the Moore Foundation; his participation in the program has benefited this work. T.F. acknowledges support from the University of California President's Postdoctoral Fellowship Program. Facilities: NASA IRTF, Keck Observatory, Magellan Telescope, Gemini North, Gemini South, Fred L. Whipple Observatory, TESS, ESO La Silla Paranal Observatory, Las Cumbres Observatory, SOAR telescope. Software: Python: pychell (Cale et al. 2019), AstroImageJ (Collins et al. 2016), EDI-Vetter Unplugged (Zink et al. 2020),DAVE (Kostov et al. 2019), tpfplotter (Aller et al. 2020b), REBOUND (Rein & Liu 2012b; Rein & Spiegel 2015b), NumPy (Harris et al. 2020), SciPy (Virtanen et al. 2020), Matplotlib (Hunter 2007), AstroPy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013), Numba (Lam et al. 2015), EXOFASTv2 (Eastman et al. 2013).
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
JPL Research and Technology Development FundUNSPECIFIED
Mt. Cuba Astronomical FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Gemini PartnershipUNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/M001962/1
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/S002642/1
Gaia Multilateral AgreementUNSPECIFIED
Australian Research CouncilLE160100001
Australian Research CouncilDP180100972
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Beatrice Watson Parrent FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1842402
NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics FellowshipAST-1903811
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1745301
Hellman Family Faculty FundUNSPECIFIED
David and Lucile Packard FoundationUNSPECIFIED
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1842400
Large Synoptic Survey Telescope CorporationUNSPECIFIED
Brinson FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
University of CaliforniaUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Infrared: stars, methods: data analysis, stars: individual (TOI 560), techniques: radial velocities
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220113-234613571
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:112907
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:14 Jan 2022 19:52
Last Modified:14 Jan 2022 19:52

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