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The Rate, Amplitude, and Duration of Outbursts from Class 0 Protostars in Orion

Zakri, Wafa and Megeath, S. T. and Fischer, William J. and Gutermuth, Robert and Furlan, Elise and Hartmann, Lee and Karnath, Nicole and Osorio, Mayra and Safron, Emily and Stanke, Thomas and Stutz, Amelia M. and Tobin, John J. and Allen, Thomas S. and Federman, Sam and Habel, Nolan and Manoj, P. and Narang, Mayank and Pokhrel, Riwaj and Rebull, Luisa and Sheehan, Patrick D. and Watson, Dan M. (2022) The Rate, Amplitude, and Duration of Outbursts from Class 0 Protostars in Orion. Astrophysical Journal Letters, 924 (2). Art. No. L23. ISSN 2041-8205. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ac46ae.

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At least half of a protostar’s mass is accreted in the Class 0 phase, when the central protostar is deeply embedded in a dense, infalling envelope. We present the first systematic search for outbursts from Class 0 protostars in the Orion clouds. Using photometry from Spitzer/IRAC spanning 2004 to 2017, we detect three outbursts from Class 0 protostars with ≥2 mag changes at 3.6 or 4.5 μm. This is comparable to the magnitude change of a known protostellar FU Ori outburst. Two are newly detected bursts from the protostars HOPS 12 and 124. The number of detections implies that Class 0 protostars burst every 438 yr, with a 95% confidence interval of 161 to 1884 yr. Combining Spitzer and WISE/NEOWISE data spanning 2004–2019, we show that the bursts persist for more than nine years with significant variability during each burst. Finally, we use 19–100 μm photometry from SOFIA, Spitzer, and Herschel to measure the amplitudes of the bursts. Based on the burst interval, a duration of 15 yr, and the range of observed amplitudes, 3%–100% of the mass accretion during the Class 0 phase occurs during bursts. In total, we show that bursts from Class 0 protostars are as frequent, or even more frequent, than those from more evolved protostars. This is consistent with bursts being driven by instabilities in disks triggered by rapid mass infall. Furthermore, we find that bursts may be a significant, if not dominant, mode of mass accretion during the Class 0 phase.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Zakri, Wafa0000-0001-9030-1832
Megeath, S. T.0000-0001-7629-3573
Fischer, William J.0000-0002-3747-2496
Gutermuth, Robert0000-0002-6447-899X
Furlan, Elise0000-0001-9800-6248
Hartmann, Lee0000-0003-1430-8519
Karnath, Nicole0000-0003-3682-854X
Osorio, Mayra0000-0002-6737-5267
Safron, Emily0000-0002-6872-2582
Stanke, Thomas0000-0002-5812-9232
Stutz, Amelia M.0000-0003-2300-8200
Tobin, John J.0000-0002-6195-0152
Federman, Sam0000-0002-6136-5578
Habel, Nolan0000-0002-2667-1676
Manoj, P.0000-0002-3530-304X
Narang, Mayank0000-0002-0554-1151
Pokhrel, Riwaj0000-0002-0557-7349
Rebull, Luisa0000-0001-6381-515X
Sheehan, Patrick D.0000-0002-9209-8708
Watson, Dan M.0000-0001-8302-0530
Additional Information:© 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2021 September 23; revised 2021 December 6; accepted 2021 December 21; published 2022 January 12. We thank the referee for insightful comments. This work uses observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope, operated by JPL/Caltech under a contract with NASA. This paper also uses data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, a joint project of the University of California, Los Angeles, and JPL/Caltech, funded by NASA. Observations were also made with the NASA/DLR Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). SOFIA is jointly operated by the Universities Space Research Association, Inc. (USRA), under NASA contract NNA17BF53C, and the Deutsches SOFIA Institut (DSI) under DLR contract 50 OK 0901 to the University of Stuttgart. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA. Finally, this work makes use of the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive, operated by JPL/Caltech under a contract with NASA. S.T.M. and R.A.G. were supported by the NASA ADAP grant 80NSSC19K0591, and S.T.M. was supported by the NASA ADAP grant 80NSSC20K0454. R.P. was supported by the NASA ADAP grant 80NSSC18K1564. Support for W.J.F. was provided by NASA through award #07_0200 issued by USRA. A.S. gratefully acknowledges funding support through Fondecyt Regular (project code 1180350), from the ANID BASAL project FB210003, and from the Chilean Centro de Excelencia en Astrofísica y Tecnologías Afines (CATA) BASAL grant AFB-170002. M.O. acknowledges support from the Spanish MINECO/AEI AYA2017-84390-C2-1-R (co-funded by FEDER) and MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033 through the PID2020-114461GB-I00 grant, and from the State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the "Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa" award for the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-2017-0709). This work was completed while STM was a Fulbright Scholar hosted by AS at the Universidad de Concepcíon. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. Facilities: Spitzer - Spitzer Space Telescope satellite, SOFIA - , Herschel - , WISE - , NEOWISE. Software: IDL Astronomy Users' Library (Landsman 1993), Matplotlib (
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR)50 OK 0901
Universities Space Research Association07_0200
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)1180350
ANID BASAL projectFB210003
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)AYA2017-84390-C2-1-R
Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)10.13039/501100011033
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)PID2020-114461GB- I00
Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades (MCIU)SEV-2017-0709
Fulbright FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Protostars – Star formation – Variable stars – Infrared astronomy
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220118-993989000
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Wafa Zakri et al 2022 ApJL 924 L23
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:112958
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:19 Jan 2022 15:23
Last Modified:19 Jan 2022 15:23

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