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Closure relations during the plateau emission of Swift GRBs and the fundamental plane

Dainotti, Maria Giovanna and Lenart, Aleksander Ł. and Fraija, Nissim and Nagataki, Shigehiro and Warren, Donald C. and De Simone, Biagio and Srinivasaragavan, Gokul and Mata, Aurora (2021) Closure relations during the plateau emission of Swift GRBs and the fundamental plane. Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, 73 (4). pp. 970-1000. ISSN 0004-6264. doi:10.1093/pasj/psab057.

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The Neil Gehrels Swift observatory observes gamma-ray burst (GRB) plateaus in X-rays. We test the reliability of the closure relations through the fireball model when dealing with GRB plateau emissions. We analyze 455 X-ray light curves collected by Swift from 2005 January until 2019 August for which the redshifts are either known or unknown using the phenomenological Willingale 2007 model. Using these fits, we analyze the emission mechanisms and astrophysical environments of these GRBs through the closure relations within the time interval of the plateau emission. Finally, we test the three-dimensional fundamental plane relation (Dainotti relation) which connects the prompt peak luminosity, the time at the end of the plateau (rest frame), and the luminosity at that time, for the GRBs with redshift, concerning groups determined by the closure relations. This allows us to check if the intrinsic scatter σ_(int) of any of these groups is reduced compared to previous literature. The most fulfilled environments for the electron spectral distribution, p > 2, are wind slow cooling (SC) and interstellar material (ISM) slow cooling for cases in which the parameter q, which indicates the flatness of the plateau emission and accounts for the energy injection, is 0 and 0.5, respectively, in cases with both known and unknown redshifts. We also find that for short GRBs all ISM environments with q = 0 have the smallest σ_(int) = 0.04 ± 0.15 in terms of the fundamental plane relation holding a probability of occurring by chance of p = 0.005. We have shown that the majority of GRBs presenting plateau emission fulfill the closure relations, including the energy injection, with a particular preference for the wind SC environment. The subsample of GRBs that fulfill the given relations can be used as possible standard candles and can suggest a way to reduce the intrinsic scatter of these studied relationships.

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Additional Information:© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Astronomical Society of Japan. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model ( Received 2021 March 19; Accepted 2021 May 20. Published: 29 June 2021. This work used data supplied by the UK Swift Science Data Centre, University of Leicester. We thank S. Savastano and G. Sarracino for partially writing the Python codes for the D’Agostini method. We are grateful to L. Bowden, R. Wynne, R. Wagner, and Z. Nuygen for fitting some of the GRB light curves. G.S. thanks the United States Department of Energy funding scheme related to the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) program from which also Bowden, Wynne, and Wagner were supported. M.G.D. acknowledges the support from the NAOJ Division of Science and is particularly grateful to Dr. Cuellar for the support in managing the SULI students at SLAC. S.N. is partially supported by JSPS Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research KAKENHI (A) 19H00693, Pioneering Program of RIKEN for Evolution of Matter in the Universe (r-EMU), and Interdisciplinary Theoretical and Mathematical Sciences Program (iTHEMS) of RIKEN. N.F. acknowledges the financial support from UNAM-DGAPA-PAPIIT through the grant IA102019. The first and second authors contributed equally to this paper.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
National Astronomical Observatory of JapanUNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)19H00693
Dirección General Asuntos del Personal Académico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (DGAPA-UNAM)IA102019
Issue or Number:4
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220119-312532400
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Official Citation:Maria Giovanna Dainotti, Aleksander Ł Lenart, Nissim Fraija, Shigehiro Nagataki, Donald C Warren, Biagio De Simone, Gokul Srinivasaragavan, Aurora Mata, Closure relations during the plateau emission of Swift GRBs and the fundamental plane, Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, Volume 73, Issue 4, August 2021, Pages 970–1000,
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:112972
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:19 Jan 2022 18:19
Last Modified:19 Jan 2022 18:19

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