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Editorial: Novel Concepts in Using Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies for HIV-1 Treatment and Prevention

Wagh, Kshitij and van Gils, Marit J. and Gristick, Harry and Schommers, Philipp (2021) Editorial: Novel Concepts in Using Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies for HIV-1 Treatment and Prevention. Frontiers in Immunology, 12 . Art. No. 823576. ISSN 1664-3224. PMCID PMC8724241. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2021.823576. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20220121-733276000

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Abstract

Despite the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in suppressing HIV-1 replication and preventing disease progression, the high costs, the burden of daily medication, toxicity and the development of resistance underscore the need for new therapeutic approaches. Over the past decade, broadly HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) were discovered that are up to a 1000-fold more potent than HIV-1-reactive antibodies previously described. About 10 years after the first identification of these broadly neutralizing antibodies, bNAbs that effectively target multiple HIV-1 variants with a high potency have been found for most of the immunological important epitopes on the HIV-1 envelope-trimer like the CD4 binding site, the V1/V2 loop, the V3-glycan, the membrane-proximal external region (MPER), the interface region with the fusion peptide and the so called ‘silent face’. Some of these bNAbs have been demonstrated to safely suppress viremia and delay viral rebound after interruption of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-1-infected individuals. Moreover, bNAbs have been demonstrated to prevent infection in animal models and prevention studies where bNAbs are tested for their effectivity as passive immunization in humans are currently ongoing. Thus, bNAbs represent a promising novel approach for effective HIV-1 immunotherapy and prevention. However, infusions of single bNAbs drive the emergence of viral escape mutations and some patients harbor pre-existing resistance in their proviral or circulating HIV-1 quasispecies. Furthermore, the recently completed proof-of-concept Antibody Mediated Prevention (AMP) phase 2b trials showed that much higher bNAb titers or more potent and broader bNAbs, especially for single bNAbs, would be required for HIV-1 prevention in real-world settings. Thus, in order to restrict HIV-1 escape mechanisms and for improved antibody-mediated HIV-1 prevention, future regimens will require novel antibodies, antibody combinations or novel concepts like e.g. bi- or trispecific antibodies. In this Research Topic, we aim to bring together new studies and comprehensive reviews that advance the field of bNAbs and their future clinical use for treatment and prevention of HIV-1.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.823576DOIArticle
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc8724241/PubMed CentralArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Gristick, Harry0000-0002-1957-2821
Schommers, Philipp0000-0003-3375-6800
Additional Information:© 2021 Wagh, van Gils, Gristick and Schommers. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Received: 27 November 2021; Accepted: 07 December 2021; Published: 21 December 2021. Author Contributions. All authors listed have made a substantial, direct, and intellectual contribution to the work and approved it for publication. KW was supported by the Comprehensive Antibody Vaccine Immune Monitoring Consortium (CAVIMC) (Grant: OPP1032144 from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Bill and Melinda Gates FoundationOPP1032144
Subject Keywords:HIV, antibodies, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), Neutralization, bNAbs
PubMed Central ID:PMC8724241
DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2021.823576
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220121-733276000
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20220121-733276000
Official Citation:Wagh K, van Gils MJ, Gristick H and Schommers P (2021) Editorial: Novel Concepts in Using Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies for HIV-1 Treatment and Prevention. Front. Immunol. 12:823576. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.823576
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:113037
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:21 Jan 2022 22:33
Last Modified:21 Jan 2022 22:33

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