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The VLA/ALMA Nascent Disk And Multiplicity (VANDAM) Survey of Orion Protostars. V. A Characterization of Protostellar Multiplicity

Tobin, John J. and Offner, Stella S. R. and Kratter, Kaitlin M. and Megeath, S. Thomas and Sheehan, Patrick D. and Looney, Leslie W. and Diaz-Rodriguez, Ana Karla and Osorio, Mayra and Anglada, Guillem and Sadavoy, Sarah I. and Furlan, Elise and Segura-Cox, Dominique and Karnath, Nicole and van ’t Hoff, Merel L. R. and van Dishoeck, Ewine F. and Li, Zhi-Yun and Sharma, Rajeeb and Stutz, Amelia M. and Tychoniec, Łukasz (2022) The VLA/ALMA Nascent Disk And Multiplicity (VANDAM) Survey of Orion Protostars. V. A Characterization of Protostellar Multiplicity. Astrophysical Journal, 925 (1). Art. No. 39. ISSN 0004-637X. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac36d2. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20220125-489472406

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Abstract

We characterize protostellar multiplicity in the Orion molecular clouds using Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array 0.87 mm and Very Large Array 9 mm continuum surveys toward 328 protostars. These observations are sensitive to projected spatial separations as small as ∼20 au, and we consider source separations up to 10⁴ au as potential companions. The overall multiplicity fraction (MF) and companion fraction (CF) for the Orion protostars are 0.30 ± 0.03 and 0.44 ± 0.03, respectively, considering separations from 20 to 10⁴ au. The MFs and CFs are corrected for potential contamination by unassociated young stars using a probabilistic scheme based on the surface density of young stars around each protostar. The companion separation distribution as a whole is double peaked and inconsistent with the separation distribution of solar-type field stars, while the separation distribution of Flat Spectrum protostars is consistent solar-type field stars. The multiplicity statistics and companion separation distributions of the Perseus star-forming region are consistent with those of Orion. Based on the observed peaks in the Class 0 separations at ∼100 au and ∼10³ au, we argue that multiples with separations <500 au are likely produced by both disk fragmentation and turbulent fragmentation with migration, and those at ≳10³ au result primarily from turbulent fragmentation. We also find that MFs/CFs may rise from Class 0 to Flat Spectrum protostars between 100 and 10³ au in regions of high young stellar object density. This finding may be evidence for the migration of companions from >10³ au to <10³ au, and that some companions between 10³ and 10⁴ au must be (or become) unbound.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ac36d2DOIArticle
https://arxiv.org/abs/2111.05801arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Tobin, John J.0000-0002-6195-0152
Offner, Stella S. R.0000-0003-1252-9916
Kratter, Kaitlin M.0000-0001-5253-1338
Megeath, S. Thomas0000-0001-7629-3573
Sheehan, Patrick D.0000-0002-9209-8708
Looney, Leslie W.0000-0002-4540-6587
Diaz-Rodriguez, Ana Karla0000-0001-9112-6474
Osorio, Mayra0000-0002-6737-5267
Anglada, Guillem0000-0002-7506-5429
Sadavoy, Sarah I.0000-0001-7474-6874
Furlan, Elise0000-0001-9800-6248
Segura-Cox, Dominique0000-0003-3172-6763
Karnath, Nicole0000-0003-3682-854X
van ’t Hoff, Merel L. R.0000-0002-2555-9869
van Dishoeck, Ewine F.0000-0001-7591-1907
Li, Zhi-Yun0000-0002-7402-6487
Sharma, Rajeeb0000-0002-0549-544X
Stutz, Amelia M.0000-0003-2300-8200
Tychoniec, Łukasz0000-0002-9470-2358
Additional Information:© 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2021 August 3; revised 2021 November 1; accepted 2021 November 2; published 2022 January 24. The authors thank the anonymous referee for a constructive report that helped improve the quality of the manuscript. J.J.T. acknowledges support from NSF AST-1814762 and HST-GO-15141.018-A. S.S.R.O. acknowledges support from NSF Career grant 1748571. L.W.L. acknowledges support from NSF AST-1910364. G.A. and M.O. acknowledge support from the Spanish MINECO/AEI AYA2017-84390-C2-1-R (co-funded by FEDER) and PID2020-114461GB-I00/AEI/10.13039/501100011033 grants, and from the State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the "Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa" award for the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-2017-0709). Z.Y.L. is supported in part by NASA NSSC18K1095 and NSF 1815784. A.S. gratefully acknowledges funding support through Fondecyt Regular (project code 1180350) and from the Chilean Centro de Excelencia en Astrofísica y Tecnologías Afines (CATA) BASAL grant AFB-170002. This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2015.1.00041.S. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA) and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada), NSC and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO, and NAOJ. The PI acknowledges assistance from Allegro, the European ALMA Regional Center node in the Netherlands. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. This research made use of APLpy, an open-source plotting package for Python hosted at http://aplpy.github.com. This research made use of Astropy, a community-developed core Python package for Astronomy (Astropy Collaboration, 2013) http://www.astropy.org. Facilities: ALMA - Atacama Large Millimeter Array, VLA. - Software: Astropy (http://www.astropy.org; Astropy Collaboration et al. 2018; Greenfield et al. 2013), APLpy (http://aplpy.github.com; Robitaille & Bressert 2012), CASA (http://casa.nrao.edu; McMullin et al. 2007).
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSFAST-1814762
NASAHST-GO-15141.018-A
NSFAST-1748571
NSFAST-1910364
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)AYA2017-84390-C2-1-R
Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)PID2020-114461GB-I00/AEI/10.13039/50110001103
Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades (MCIU)UNSPECIFIED
Severo OchoaSEV-2017-0709
NASANSSC18K1095
NSFAST-1815784
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)1180350
BASAL-CATAAFB-170002
Subject Keywords:Protostars; Young stellar objects; Radio interferometry; Multiple stars
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Protostars (1302); Young stellar objects (1834); Radio interferometry (1346); Multiple stars (1081)
DOI:10.3847/1538-4357/ac36d2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220125-489472406
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20220125-489472406
Official Citation:John J. Tobin et al 2022 ApJ 925 39
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:113100
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:25 Jan 2022 10:20
Last Modified:25 Jan 2022 21:38

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  • Tobin, John J. and Offner, Stella S. R. and Kratter, Kaitlin M. and Megeath, S. Thomas and Sheehan, Patrick D. and Looney, Leslie W. and Diaz-Rodriguez, Ana Karla and Osorio, Mayra and Anglada, Guillem and Sadavoy, Sarah I. and Furlan, Elise and Segura-Cox, Dominique and Karnath, Nicole and van ’t Hoff, Merel L. R. and van Dishoeck, Ewine F. and Li, Zhi-Yun and Sharma, Rajeeb and Stutz, Amelia M. and Tychoniec, Łukasz The VLA/ALMA Nascent Disk And Multiplicity (VANDAM) Survey of Orion Protostars. V. A Characterization of Protostellar Multiplicity. (deposited 25 Jan 2022 10:20) [Currently Displayed]

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