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Zodiacal exoplanets in time – XIII. Planet orbits and atmospheres in the V1298 Tau system, a keystone in studies of early planetary evolution

Gaidos, E. and Hirano, T. and Beichman, C. and Livingston, J. and Harakawa, H. and Hodapp, K. W. and Ishizuka, M. and Jacobson, S, and Konishi, M. and Kotani, T. and Kudo, T. and Kurokawa, T. and Kuzuhara, M. and Nishikawa, J. and Omiya, M. and Serizawa, T. and Tamura, M. and Ueda, A. and Vievard, S. (2022) Zodiacal exoplanets in time – XIII. Planet orbits and atmospheres in the V1298 Tau system, a keystone in studies of early planetary evolution. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 509 (2). pp. 2969-2978. ISSN 0035-8711. doi:10.1093/mnras/stab3107. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20220127-666266300

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Abstract

Studies of planetary systems of stars in star-forming regions and young clusters open a window on the formative stages of planetary evolution. We obtained high-cadence high-resolution infrared spectroscopy of the solar-mass Taurus association-member V1298 Tau during a transit of its 10R⊕-size ‘b’ planet. We measured the systemic radial velocity (RV) and find that the kinematics of V1298 Tau suggest an affiliation with a ≳6 Myr-old subgroup. A comparison of V1298 Tau and the nearby, co-moving star 2M0405 with stellar evolution models suggests an age of ∼10–25 Myr. We measured the projected spin-orbit angle of ‘b’ as λ=15⁺¹⁵₋₁₆ and λ=2⁺¹²₋₄ degrees using the apparent RV shift and change in line profile, respectively, induced by the transient occultation of the rotating star by the planet. These values indicate a prograde orbit like that of the interior ‘c’ planet of V1298 Tau and point to a co-planar multiplanet system that formed within a disc. We also measured variation in the strength of the 1083 nm triplet of neutral orthohelium as a probe of any extended/escaping atmosphere around ‘b’. We detect a steady decrease in absorption over the transit that appears to arise from the star or its planetary system. While this variation could be ascribed to ‘b’ or possibly to the immediately preceding transit of ‘d’, we cannot rule out that this is due to rapid variation in the stellar disc-integrated flux in the triplet. The amplitude of variation (∼0.04 nm) is consistent with moderate estimates of atmospheric escape driven by XUV radiation from the central star.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stab3107DOIArticle
https://arxiv.org/abs/2110.10689arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Gaidos, E.0000-0002-5258-6846
Hirano, T.0000-0003-3618-7535
Beichman, C.0000-0002-5627-5471
Livingston, J.0000-0002-4881-3620
Harakawa, H.0000-0002-6197-5544
Hodapp, K. W.0000-0003-0786-2140
Konishi, M.0000-0003-0114-0542
Kotani, T.0000-0001-6181-3142
Kuzuhara, M.0000-0002-4677-9182
Nishikawa, J.0000-0001-9326-8134
Tamura, M.0000-0002-6510-0681
Vievard, S.0000-0003-4018-2569
Additional Information:© 2021 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model). Accepted 2021 October 20. Received 2021 October 19; in original form 2021 August 30. Published: 28 October 2021. We thank Trevor David for providing an early version of the transit ephemerides, and Greg Feiden for Dartmouth magnetic stellar model tracks. EG was supported by NASA Grant 80NSSC20K0957 (Exoplanets Research Programme). This work is partly supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers JP20K14518, JP19K14783, JP21H00035, JP18H05442, JP15H02063, and JP22000005. We used NASA’s Astrophysics Data System Bibliographic Services, the Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg, NIST’s atomic line data base, ASTROPY (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013), and SCIPY (Virtanen et al. 2020). Data Availability: All data used in this work are available from the authors or the Subaru SMOKA archive.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASA80NSSC20K0957
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP20K14518
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP19K14783
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP21H00035
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18H05442
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP15H02063
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP22000005
Subject Keywords:techniques: spectroscopic – Sun:UVradiation – planets and satellites: atmospheres – planets and satellites: physical evolution – stars: activity – planetary systems
Issue or Number:2
DOI:10.1093/mnras/stab3107
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220127-666266300
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20220127-666266300
Official Citation:E Gaidos, T Hirano, C Beichman, J Livingston, H Harakawa, K W Hodapp, M Ishizuka, S Jacobson, M Konishi, T Kotani, T Kudo, T Kurokawa, M Kuzuhara, J Nishikawa, M Omiya, T Serizawa, M Tamura, A Ueda, S Vievard, Zodiacal exoplanets in time – XIII. Planet orbits and atmospheres in the V1298 Tau system, a keystone in studies of early planetary evolution, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 509, Issue 2, January 2022, Pages 2969–2978, https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stab3107
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:113127
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:28 Jan 2022 19:18
Last Modified:28 Jan 2022 19:18

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