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Euclid preparation. XVI. Exploring the ultra-low surface brightness Universe with Euclid/VIS

Borlaff, A. S. and Gómez-Alvarez, P. and Altieri, B. and Marcum, P. M. and Vavrek, R. and Laureijs, R. and Kohley, R. and Buitrago, F. and Cuillandre, J.-C. and Duc, P.-A. and Gaspar Venancio, L. M. and Amara, A. and Andreon, S. and Auricchio, N. and Azzollini, R. and Baccigalupi, C. and Balaguera-Antolínez, A. and Baldi, M. and Bardelli, S. and Bender, R. and Biviano, A. and Bodendorf, C. and Bonino, D. and Bozzo, E. and Branchini, E. and Brescia, M. and Brinchmann, J. and Burigana, C. and Cabanac, R. and Camera, S. and Candini, G. P. and Capobianco, V. and Cappi, A. and Carbone, C. and Carretero, J. and Carvalho, C. S. and Casas, S. and Castander, F. J. and Castellano, M. and Castignani, G. and Cavuoti, S. and Cimatti, A. and Cledassou, R. and Colodro-Conde, C. and Congedo, G. and Conselice, C. J. and Conversi, L. and Copin, Y. and Corcione, L. and Coupon, J. and Courtois, H. M. and Cropper, M. and Da Silva, A. and Degaudenzi, H. and Di Ferdinando, D. and Douspis, M. and Dubath, F. and Duncan, C. A. J. and Dupac, X. and Dusini, S. and Ealet, A. and Fabricius, M. and Farina, M. and Farrens, S. and Ferreira, P. G. and Ferriol, S. and Finelli, F. and Flose-Reimberg, P. and Fosalba, P. and Frailis, M. and Franceschi, E. and Fumana, M. and Galeotta, S. and Ganga, K. and Garilli, B. and Gillis, B. and Giocoli, C. and Gozaliasl, G. and Graciá-Carpio, J. and Grazian, A. and Grupp, F. and Haugan, S. V. H. and Holmes, W. and Hormuth, F. and Jahnke, K. and Keihanen, E. and Kermiche, S. and Kiessling, A. and Kilbinger, M. and Kirkpatrick, C. C. and Kitching, T. and Knapen, J. H. and Kubik, B. and Kümmel, M. and Kunz, M. and Kurki-Suonio, H. and Liebing, P. and Ligori, S. and Lilje, P. B. and Lindholm, V. and Lloro, I. and Mainetti, G. and Maino, D. and Mansutti, O. and Marggraf, O. and Markovic, K. and Martinelli, M. and Martinet, N. and Martínez-Delgado, D. and Marulli, F. and Massey, R. and Maturi, M. and Maurogordato, S. and Medinaceli, E. and Mei, S. and Meneghetti, M. and Merlin, E. and Metcalf, R. B. and Meylan, G. and Moresco, M. and Morgante, G. and Moscardini, L. and Munari, E. and Nakajima, R. and Neissner, C. and Niemi, S. M. and Nightingale, J. W. and Nucita, A. and Padilla, C. and Paltani, S. and Pasian, F. and Patrizii, L. and Pedersen, K. and Percival, W. J. and Pettorino, V. and Pires, S. and Poncet, M. and Popa, L. and Potter, D. and Pozzetti, L. and Raison, F. and Rebolo, R. and Renzi, A. and Rhodes, J. and Riccio, G. and Romelli, E. and Roncarelli, M. and Rosset, C. and Rossetti, E. and Saglia, R. and Sánchez, A. G. and Sapone, D. and Sauvage, M. and Schneider, P. and Scottez, V. and Secroun, A. and Seidel, G. and Serrano, S. and Sirignano, C. and Sirri, G. and Skottfelt, J. and Stanco, L. and Starck, J. L. and Sureau, F. and Tallada-Crespí, P. and Taylor, A. N. and Tenti, M. and Tereno, I. and Teyssier, R. and Toledo-Moreo, R. and Torradeflot, F. and Tutusaus, I. and Valentijn, E. A. and Valenziano, L. and Valiviita, J. and Vassallo, T. and Viel, M. and Wang, Y. and Weller, J. and Whittaker, L. and Zacchei, A. and Zamorani, G. and Zucca, E. (2022) Euclid preparation. XVI. Exploring the ultra-low surface brightness Universe with Euclid/VIS. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 657 . Art. No. A92. ISSN 0004-6361. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202141935.

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Context. While Euclid is an ESA mission specifically designed to investigate the nature of dark energy and dark matter, the planned unprecedented combination of survey area (∼15 000 deg²), spatial resolution, low sky-background, and depth also make Euclid an excellent space observatory for the study of the low surface brightness Universe. Scientific exploitation of the extended low surface brightness structures requires dedicated calibration procedures that are yet to be tested. Aims. We investigate the capabilities of Euclid to detect extended low surface brightness structure by identifying and quantifying sky-background sources and stray-light contamination. We test the feasibility of generating sky flat-fields to reduce large-scale residual gradients in order to reveal the extended emission of galaxies observed in the Euclid survey. Methods. We simulated a realistic set of Euclid/VIS observations, taking into account both instrumental and astronomical sources of contamination, including cosmic rays, stray-light, zodiacal light, interstellar medium, and the cosmic infrared background, while simulating the effects of background sources in the field of view. Results. We demonstrate that a combination of calibration lamps, sky flats, and self-calibration would enable recovery of emission at a limiting surface brightness magnitude of μ_(lim) = 29.5_(−0.27)^(+0.08) mag arcsec⁻² (3σ, 10 × 10 arcsec²) in the Wide Survey, and it would reach regions deeper by 2 mag in the Deep Surveys. Conclusions. Euclid/VIS has the potential to be an excellent low surface brightness observatory. Covering the gap between pixel-to-pixel calibration lamp flats and self-calibration observations for large scales, the application of sky flat-fielding will enhance the sensitivity of the VIS detector at scales larger than 1″, up to the size of the field of view, enabling Euclid to detect extended surface brightness structures below μ_(lim) = 31 mag arcsec⁻² and beyond.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Borlaff, A. S.0000-0003-3249-4431
Gómez-Alvarez, P.0000-0001-5286-7376
Altieri, B.0000-0003-3936-0284
Buitrago, F.0000-0002-2861-9812
Cuillandre, J.-C.0000-0002-3263-8645
Meneghetti, M.0000-0003-1225-7084
Rhodes, J.0000-0002-4485-8549
Alternate Title:Euclid preparation: XVI. Exploring the ultra low-surface brightness Universe with Euclid/VIS
Additional Information:© ESO 2022. Received: 2 August 2021 Accepted: 18 August 2021. The authors thank Françoise Combes, Emmanuel Bertin, and Mischa Schirmer for the provided input that helped to improve this publication significantly. We thank Koryo Okumura for his help with the stray-light modeling and prediction methods. We also thank Matthieu Marseille, Ruyman Azzollini, Stefano Andreon, Henry Joy McCracken and Kenneth Ganga for their contributions and comments to this manuscript. We give special thanks to Jason Rhodes and Jean-Gabriel Cuby for their support. Without your insight and feedback this project would have never been possible to finish. A. B. also thanks Michael Fanelli for his support and interesting comments on the project. A. B. was supported by an appointment to the NASA Postdoctoral Program at the NASA Ames Research Center, administered by Universities Space Research Association under contract with NASA, and the European Space Agency (ESA), through the European Space Astronomy Center Faculty. We acknowledge a number of agencies and institutes that have supported the development of Euclid, in particular the Academy of Finland, the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, the Belgian Science Policy, the Canadian Euclid Consortium, the Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, the Danish Space Research Institute, the Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, the Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, the Netherlandse Onderzoekschool Voor Astronomie, the Norwegian Space Agency, the Romanian Space Agency, the State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation (SERI) at the Swiss Space Office (SSO), and the United Kingdom Space Agency. A complete and detailed list is available on the Euclid website ( This work has made use of data from the ESA mission Gaia (, processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. This research made use of NumPy (Van Der Walt et al. 2011), Astropy, a community-developed core Python package for Astronomy (Astropy Collaboration 2013). All of the figures on this publication were generated using Matplotlib (Hunter 2007). This work was partly done using GNU Astronomy Utilities (Gnuastro, version 0.11.22-dc86.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASA Postdoctoral ProgramUNSPECIFIED
European Space Agency (ESA)UNSPECIFIED
Academy of FinlandUNSPECIFIED
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI)UNSPECIFIED
Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO)UNSPECIFIED
Canadian Euclid ConsortiumUNSPECIFIED
Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES)UNSPECIFIED
Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR)UNSPECIFIED
Danish Space Research InstituteUNSPECIFIED
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad (MINECO)UNSPECIFIED
National Astronomical Observatory of JapanUNSPECIFIED
Nederlandse Onderzoekschool voor de Astronomie (NOVA)UNSPECIFIED
Norwegian Space AgencyUNSPECIFIED
Romanian Space AgencyUNSPECIFIED
Swiss Space Office (SSO)UNSPECIFIED
United Kingdom Space Agency (UKSA)UNSPECIFIED
Gaia Multilateral AgreementUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:instrumentation: detectors / techniques: image processing / space vehicles: instruments / techniques: photometric / methods: observational / galaxies: general
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220204-679747000
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Euclid preparation - XVI. Exploring the ultra-low surface brightness Universe with Euclid/VIS Euclid Collaboration, A. S. Borlaff, P. Gómez-Alvarez, B. Altieri, P. M. Marcum, R. Vavrek, R. Laureijs, R. Kohley, F. Buitrago, J.-C. Cuillandre, P.-A. Duc, L. M. Gaspar Venancio, A. Amara, S. Andreon, N. Auricchio, R. Azzollini, C. Baccigalupi, A. Balaguera-Antolínez, M. Baldi, S. Bardelli, R. Bender, A. Biviano, C. Bodendorf, D. Bonino, E. Bozzo, E. Branchini, M. Brescia, J. Brinchmann, C. Burigana, R. Cabanac, S. Camera, G. P. Candini, V. Capobianco, A. Cappi, C. Carbone, J. Carretero, C. S. Carvalho, S. Casas, F. J. Castander, M. Castellano, G. Castignani, S. Cavuoti, A. Cimatti, R. Cledassou, C. Colodro-Conde, G. Congedo, C. J. Conselice, L. Conversi, Y. Copin, L. Corcione, J. Coupon, H. M. Courtois, M. Cropper, A. Da Silva, H. Degaudenzi, D. Di Ferdinando, M. Douspis, F. Dubath, C. A. J. Duncan, X. Dupac, S. Dusini, A. Ealet, M. Fabricius, M. Farina, S. Farrens, P. G. Ferreira, S. Ferriol, F. Finelli, P. Flose-Reimberg, P. Fosalba, M. Frailis, E. Franceschi, M. Fumana, S. Galeotta, K. Ganga, B. Garilli, B. Gillis, C. Giocoli, G. Gozaliasl, J. Graciá-Carpio, A. Grazian, F. Grupp, S. V. H. Haugan, W. Holmes, F. Hormuth, K. Jahnke, E. Keihanen, S. Kermiche, A. Kiessling, M. Kilbinger, C. C. Kirkpatrick, T. Kitching, J. H. Knapen, B. Kubik, M. Kümmel, M. Kunz, H. Kurki-Suonio, P. Liebing, S. Ligori, P. B. Lilje, V. Lindholm, I. Lloro, G. Mainetti, D. Maino, O. Mansutti, O. Marggraf, K. Markovic, M. Martinelli, N. Martinet, D. Martínez-Delgado, F. Marulli, R. Massey, M. Maturi, S. Maurogordato, E. Medinaceli, S. Mei, M. Meneghetti, E. Merlin, R. B. Metcalf, G. Meylan, M. Moresco, G. Morgante, L. Moscardini, E. Munari, R. Nakajima, C. Neissner, S. M. Niemi, J. W. Nightingale, A. Nucita, C. Padilla, S. Paltani, F. Pasian, L. Patrizii, K. Pedersen, W. J. Percival, V. Pettorino, S. Pires, M. Poncet, L. Popa, D. Potter, L. Pozzetti, F. Raison, R. Rebolo, A. Renzi, J. Rhodes, G. Riccio, E. Romelli, M. Roncarelli, C. Rosset, E. Rossetti, R. Saglia, A. G. Sánchez, D. Sapone, M. Sauvage, P. Schneider, V. Scottez, A. Secroun, G. Seidel, S. Serrano, C. Sirignano, G. Sirri, J. Skottfelt, L. Stanco, J. L. Starck, F. Sureau, P. Tallada-Crespí, A. N. Taylor, M. Tenti, I. Tereno, R. Teyssier, R. Toledo-Moreo, F. Torradeflot, I. Tutusaus, E. A. Valentijn, L. Valenziano, J. Valiviita, T. Vassallo, M. Viel, Y. Wang, J. Weller, L. Whittaker, A. Zacchei, G. Zamorani and E. Zucca A&A, 657 (2022) A92 DOI:
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ID Code:113288
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:07 Feb 2022 20:33
Last Modified:07 Feb 2022 20:33

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