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Wearable soft electrochemical microfluidic device integrated with iontophoresis for sweat biosensing

Bolat, Gulcin and De la Paz, Ernesto and Azeredo, Nathalia F. and Kartolo, Michael and Kim, Jayoung and Neirdert de Loyola e Silva, Andre and Rueda, Ricardo and Brown, Christopher and Angnes, Lúcio and Wang, Joseph and Sempionatto, Juliane R. (2022) Wearable soft electrochemical microfluidic device integrated with iontophoresis for sweat biosensing. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 414 (18). pp. 5411-5421. ISSN 1618-2642. doi:10.1007/s00216-021-03865-9.

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A soft and flexible wearable sweat epidermal microfluidic device capable of simultaneously stimulating, collecting, and electrochemically analyzing sweat is demonstrated. The device represents the first system integrating an iontophoretic pilocarpine delivery system around the inlet channels of epidermal polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device for sweat collection and analysis. The freshly generated sweat is naturally pumped into the fluidic inlet without the need of exercising. Soft skin-mounted systems, incorporating non-invasive, on-demand sweat sampling/analysis interfaces for tracking target biomarkers, are in urgent need. Existing skin conformal microfluidic-based sensors for continuous monitoring of target sweat biomarkers rely on assays during intense physical exercising. This work demonstrates the first example of combining sweat stimulation, through transdermal pilocarpine delivery, with sample collection through a microfluidic channel for real-time electrochemical monitoring of sweat glucose, in a fully integrated soft and flexible multiplexed device which eliminates the need of exercising. The on-body operational performance and layout of the device were optimized considering the fluid dynamics and evaluated for detecting sweat glucose in several volunteers. Furthermore, the microfluidic monitoring device was integrated with a real-time wireless data transmission system using a flexible electronic board PCB conformal with the body. The new microfluidic platform paves the way to real-time non-invasive monitoring of biomarkers in stimulated sweat samples for diverse healthcare and wellness applications.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription ReadCube access
Bolat, Gulcin0000-0003-2063-3238
Azeredo, Nathalia F.0000-0002-8121-3643
Kim, Jayoung0000-0002-3683-4627
Angnes, Lúcio0000-0003-3639-6783
Wang, Joseph0000-0001-6786-8099
Sempionatto, Juliane R.0000-0003-2431-9019
Additional Information:© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2022. Received: 30 October 2021 / Revised: 20 December 2021 / Accepted: 22 December 2021. Published in the topical collection featuring Promising Early-Career (Bio)Analytical Researchers with guest editors Antje J. Baeumner, Mar a C. Moreno-Bondi, Sabine Szunerits, and Qiuquan Wang. This work was supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency Joint Science and Technology Office for Chemical and Biological Defense (grant number: HDTRA 1–16-1–0013) and the UCSD Center of Wearable Sensors (CWS). J. R. S. received fellowship from CNPq (grant number: 216981/2014–0), G. B. received fellowship from the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK 2219). N. F. A. received fellowship from Capes/PDSE—Finance Code 001 (Program 194 – Process—88881.186873/2018–01). E.D.l.P. received support from a UC MEXUS–CONACYT collaborative fellowship (2017–2022). Ethics approval. Human studies were conducted in strict compliance following a protocol approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) at the University of California, San Diego. All participants provided written informed consent prior to each study. The authors declare no competing interests.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA)HDTRA 1-16-1-0013
University of California, San DiegoUNSPECIFIED
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)216981/2014-0
Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştırma Kurumu (TÜBİTAK)TUBITAK 2219
Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES)88881.186873/2018-01
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Stimulated sweat;   Sweat glucose;   Iontophoresis;   Sweat sensor;   Wearable sensors;   Epidermal microfluidic
Issue or Number:18
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220204-680176000
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Bolat, G., De la Paz, E., Azeredo, N.F. et al. Wearable soft electrochemical microfluidic device integrated with iontophoresis for sweat biosensing. Anal Bioanal Chem 414, 5411–5421 (2022).
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:113296
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:07 Feb 2022 17:30
Last Modified:03 Aug 2022 21:06

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