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TESS Giants Transiting Giants. II. The Hottest Jupiters Orbiting Evolved Stars

Grunblatt, Samuel K. and Saunders, Nicholas and Sun, Meng and Chontos, Ashley and Soares-Furtado, Melinda and Eisner, Nora and Pereira, Filipe and Komacek, Thaddeus and Huber, Daniel and Collins, Karen and Wang, Gavin and Stockdale, Chris and Quinn, Samuel N. and Tronsgaard, Rene and Zhou, George and Nowak, Grzegorz and Deeg, Hans J. and Ciardi, David R. and Boyle, Andrew and Rice, Malena and Dai, Fei and Blunt, Sarah and Van Zandt, Judah and Beard, Corey and Akana Murphy, Joseph M. and Dalba, Paul A. and Lubin, Jack and Polanski, Alex and Brinkman, Casey Lynn and Howard, Andrew W. and Buchhave, Lars A. and Angus, Ruth and Ricker, George R. and Jenkins, Jon M. and Wohler, Bill and Goeke, Robert F. and Levine, Alan M. and Colon, Knicole D. and Huang, Chelsea X. and Kunimoto, Michelle and Shporer, Avi and Latham, David W. and Seager, Sara and Vanderspek, Roland K. and Winn, Joshua N. (2022) TESS Giants Transiting Giants. II. The Hottest Jupiters Orbiting Evolved Stars. Astronomical Journal, 163 (3). Art. No. 120. ISSN 0004-6256. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/ac4972.

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Giant planets on short-period orbits are predicted to be inflated and eventually engulfed by their host stars. However, the detailed timescales and stages of these processes are not well known. Here, we present the discovery of three hot Jupiters (P < 10 days) orbiting evolved, intermediate-mass stars (M⋆ ≈ 1.5 M_⊙, 2 R_⊙ < R⋆ < 5 R_⊙). By combining TESS photometry with ground-based photometry and radial velocity measurements, we report masses and radii for these three planets of between 0.4 and 1.8 M_J and 0.8 and 1.8 R_J. TOI-2337b has the shortest period (P = 2.99432 ± 0.00008 days) of any planet discovered around a red giant star to date. Both TOI-4329b and TOI-2669b appear to be inflated, but TOI-2337b does not show any sign of inflation. The large radii and relatively low masses of TOI-4329b and TOI-2669b place them among the lowest density hot Jupiters currently known, while TOI-2337b is conversely one of the highest. All three planets have orbital eccentricities of below 0.2. The large spread in radii for these systems implies that planet inflation has a complex dependence on planet mass, radius, incident flux, and orbital properties. We predict that TOI-2337b has the shortest orbital decay timescale of any planet currently known, but do not detect any orbital decay in this system. Transmission spectroscopy of TOI-4329b would provide a favorable opportunity for the detection of water, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide features in the atmosphere of a planet orbiting an evolved star, and could yield new information about planet formation and atmospheric evolution.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Grunblatt, Samuel K.0000-0003-4976-9980
Saunders, Nicholas0000-0003-2657-3889
Sun, Meng0000-0001-9037-6180
Chontos, Ashley0000-0003-1125-2564
Soares-Furtado, Melinda0000-0001-7493-7419
Eisner, Nora0000-0002-9138-9028
Pereira, Filipe0000-0002-2157-7146
Komacek, Thaddeus0000-0002-9258-5311
Huber, Daniel0000-0001-8832-4488
Collins, Karen0000-0001-6588-9574
Wang, Gavin0000-0003-3092-4418
Stockdale, Chris0000-0003-2163-1437
Quinn, Samuel N.0000-0002-8964-8377
Tronsgaard, Rene0000-0003-1001-0707
Zhou, George0000-0002-4891-3517
Nowak, Grzegorz0000-0002-7031-7754
Deeg, Hans J.0000-0003-0047-4241
Ciardi, David R.0000-0002-5741-3047
Boyle, Andrew0000-0001-6037-2971
Rice, Malena0000-0002-7670-670X
Dai, Fei0000-0002-8958-0683
Blunt, Sarah0000-0002-3199-2888
Van Zandt, Judah0000-0002-4290-6826
Beard, Corey0000-0001-7708-2364
Akana Murphy, Joseph M.0000-0001-8898-8284
Dalba, Paul A.0000-0002-4297-5506
Lubin, Jack0000-0001-8342-7736
Polanski, Alex0000-0001-7047-8681
Brinkman, Casey Lynn0000-0002-4480-310X
Howard, Andrew W.0000-0001-8638-0320
Buchhave, Lars A.0000-0003-1605-5666
Angus, Ruth0000-0003-4540-5661
Ricker, George R.0000-0003-2058-6662
Jenkins, Jon M.0000-0002-4715-9460
Wohler, Bill0000-0002-5402-9613
Goeke, Robert F.0000-0003-1748-5975
Levine, Alan M.0000-0001-8172-0453
Colon, Knicole D.0000-0001-8020-7121
Huang, Chelsea X.0000-0003-0918-7484
Kunimoto, Michelle0000-0001-9269-8060
Shporer, Avi0000-0002-1836-3120
Latham, David W.0000-0001-9911-7388
Seager, Sara0000-0002-6892-6948
Vanderspek, Roland K.0000-0001-6763-6562
Winn, Joshua N.0000-0002-4265-047X
Additional Information:© 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2021 December 1; revised 2022 January 6; accepted 2022 January 7; published 2022 February 9. We thank Howard Isaacson and Daniel Foreman-Mackey for helpful discussions. We acknowledge the use of public TESS data from pipelines at the TESS Science Office and at the TESS Science Processing Operations Center. Resources supporting this work were provided by the NASA High-End Computing (HEC) Program through the NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) Division at Ames Research Center for the production of the SPOC data products. This work was supported by a NASA Keck PI Data Award, administered by the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute. Data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory from telescope time allocated to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration through the agency's scientific partnership with the California Institute of Technology and the University of California. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Maunakea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. S.G., N.S., and D.H. acknowledge support by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under grant 80NSSC19K0593 issued through the TESS Guest Investigator Program. D.H. acknowledges support from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (80NSSC21K0652), and the National Science Foundation (80NSSC21K0652). N.S., A.C., and M.R. acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation through the Graduate Research Fellowship Program under grants 1842402 and DGE-1752134. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. M.S. acknowledges funding support from NSF ACI-1663696 and AST-1716436. T.D.K. acknowledges support from the 51 Pegasi b fellowship in Planetary Astronomy sponsored by the Heising-Simons Foundation. P.D. is supported by a National Science Foundation (NSF) Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship under award AST-1903811. This research has made use of the Exoplanet Follow-up Observation Program website, which is operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under the Exoplanet Exploration Program. Funding for the TESS mission is provided by NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Software: This work relied heavily on open source software tools, and we would like to thank the developers for their contributions to the astronomy community. For data access and detrending, this research made use of lightkurve, a Python package for Kepler and TESS data analysis (Lightkurve Collaboration et al. 2018), TESSCut, a MAST tool for extracting observations from TESS FFIs (Brasseur et al. 2019), and eleanor, a pipeline for producing and detrending TESS FFI light curves (Feinstein et al. 2019). The analysis portion of this research relied on astropy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013,astropy2018), as well as exoplanet (Foreman-Mackey et al. 2020) and its dependencies (Agol et al. 2020; Foreman-Mackey et al. 2020; Kipping 2013; Luger et al. 2019; Salvatier et al. 2016; Theano Development Team 2016).
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1842402
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1752134
Heising-Simons Foundation51 Pegasi b Fellowship
NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics FellowshipAST-1903811
Subject Keywords:Exoplanet astronomy; Star-planet interactions; Stellar evolution
Issue or Number:3
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Exoplanet astronomy (486); Star-planet interactions (2177); Stellar evolution (1599)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220209-266122000
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Samuel K. Grunblatt et al 2022 AJ 163 120
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:113348
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:09 Feb 2022 23:10
Last Modified:09 Feb 2022 23:10

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