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The CGM–GRB Study. II. Outflow–Galaxy Connection at z ∼ 2–6

Gatkine, Pradip and Veilleux, Sylvain and Perley, Daniel and Durbak, Joseph and Dichiara, Simone and Cenko, S. Bradley and Troja, Eleonora (2022) The CGM–GRB Study. II. Outflow–Galaxy Connection at z ∼ 2–6. Astrophysical Journal, 926 (1). Art. No. 63. ISSN 0004-637X. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac408e.

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We use a sample of 27 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) at redshift z = 2–6 to probe the outflows in their respective host galaxies (log(M_*/M_⊙) ∼ 9–11) and search for possible relations between the outflow properties and those of the host galaxies, such as M*, the star formation rate (SFR), and the specific SFR (sSFR). First, we consider three outflow properties: outflow column density (N_(out)), maximum outflow velocity (Vmax), and normalized maximum velocity (V_(norm) = V_(max)/V_(circ,halo), where V_(circ,halo) is the halo circular velocity). We observe clear trends of N_(out) and V_(max) with increasing SFR in high-ion-traced outflows, with a stronger (>3σ) V_(max)–SFR correlation. We find that the estimated mass outflow rate and momentum flux of the high-ion outflows scale with SFR and can be supported by the momentum imparted by star formation (supernovae and stellar winds). The kinematic correlations of high-ion-traced outflows with SFR are similar to those observed for star-forming galaxies at low redshifts. The correlations with SFR are weaker in low-ion outflows. This, along with the lower detection fraction in low-ion outflows, indicates that the outflow is primarily high-ion dominated. We also observe a strong (>3σ) trend of normalized velocity (V_(norm)) decreasing with halo mass and increasing with sSFR, suggesting that outflows from low-mass halos and high-sSFR galaxies are most likely to escape and enrich the outer circumgalactic medium (CGM) and intergalactic medium with metals. By comparing the CGM–GRB stacks with those of starbursts at z ∼ 2 and z ∼ 0.1, we find that over a broad redshift range, the outflow strength strongly depends on the main-sequence offset at the respective redshifts, rather than simply the SFR.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Gatkine, Pradip0000-0002-1955-2230
Veilleux, Sylvain0000-0002-3158-6820
Perley, Daniel0000-0001-8472-1996
Dichiara, Simone0000-0001-6849-1270
Cenko, S. Bradley0000-0003-1673-970X
Troja, Eleonora0000-0002-1869-7817
Additional Information:© 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2020 October 21; revised 2021 November 23; accepted 2021 November 30; published 2022 February 11. The authors are grateful to Drs. A. Cucchiara and V. Toy for their useful comments in the early stages of this paper. P.G. was supported by a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship (ASTRO18F-0085), a NASA Hubble Fellowship (HST-HF2-51478.001-A), and a David & Ellen Lee Fellowship at Caltech for this research. S.V. acknowledges partial support from the National Science Foundation under grant 1711377 and National Aeronautics and Space Administration under grants 16-APRA 16-0064 and ADAP NNX16AF24G. These results made use of the Lowell Discovery Telescope (LDT) at Lowell Observatory. Lowell is a private, nonprofit institution dedicated to astrophysical research and public appreciation of astronomy, and it operates the LDT in partnership with Boston University, the University of Maryland, the University of Toledo, Northern Arizona University, and Yale University. The Large Monolithic Imager was built by Lowell Observatory using funds provided by the National Science Foundation (AST-1005313). Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under program IDs 177.A-3016, 177.A-3017, 177.A-3018, and 179.A-2004, and on data products produced by the KiDS consortium. The KiDS production team acknowledges support from: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, ERC, NOVA, and NWO-M grants; Target; the University of Padova; and the University Federico II (Naples). Facilities: Very Large Telescopes - , Lowell Discovery Telescope - , Spitzer Space Telescope - , Hubble Space Telescope - , Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory. - Software: galfit (Peng et al. 2002), astropy (Robitaille et al. 2013), ESOreflex (Freudling et al. 2013), lifelines (Davidson-Pilon 2019).
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASA Earth and Space Science FellowshipASTRO18F-0085
NASA Hubble FellowshipHST-HF2-51478.001-A
David and Ellen Lee Postdoctoral ScholarshipUNSPECIFIED
NASA16-APRA 16-0064
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)UNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)UNSPECIFIED
Nederlandse Onderzoekschool voor de Astronomie (NOVA)UNSPECIFIED
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)UNSPECIFIED
University of PadovaUNSPECIFIED
University Federico IIUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Circumgalactic medium; Galactic winds; High-redshift galaxies; Galaxies; Galaxy evolution; Star formation; Gamma-ray bursts; Intergalactic medium
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Circumgalactic medium (1879); Galactic winds (572); High-redshift galaxies (734); Galaxies (573); Galaxy evolution (594); Star formation (1569); Gamma-ray bursts (629); Intergalactic medium (813)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220216-71192973
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Pradip Gatkine et al 2022 ApJ 926 63
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:113468
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:16 Feb 2022 10:04
Last Modified:16 Feb 2022 18:35

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