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Apertif: Phased array feeds for the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. System overview and performance characteristics

van Cappellen, W. A. and Oosterloo, T. A. and Verheijen, M. A. W. and Adams, E. A. K. and Adebahr, B. and Braun, R. and Hess, K. M. and Holties, H. and van der Hulst, J. M. and Hut, B. and Kooistra, E. and van Leeuwen, J. and Loose, G. M. and Morganti, R. and Moss, V. A. and Orrú, E. and Ruiter, M. and Schoenmakers, A. P. and Vermaas, N. J. and Wijnholds, S. J. and van Amesfoort, A. S. and Arts, M. J. and Attema, J. J. and Bakker, L. and Bassa, C. G. and Bast, J. E. and Benthem, P. and Beukema, R. and Blaauw, R. and de Blok, W. J. G. and Bouwhuis, M. and van den Brink, R. H. and Connor, L. and Coolen, A. H. W. M. and Damstra, S. and van Diepen, G. N. J. and de Goei, R. and Dénes, H. and Drost, M. and Ebbendorf, N. and Frank, B. S. and Gardenier, D. W. and Gerbers, M. and Grange, Y. G. and Grit, T. and Gunst, A. W. and Gupta, N. and Ivashina, M. V. and Józsa, G. I. G. and Janssen, G. H. and Koster, A. and Kruithof, G. H. and Kuindersma, S. J. and Kutkin, A. and Lucero, D. M. and Maan, Y. and Maccagni, F. M. and van der Marel, J. and Mika, A. and Morawietz, J. and Mulder, H. and Mulder, E. and Norden, M. J. and Offringa, A. R. and Oostrum, L. C. and Overeem, R. E. and Paragi, Z. and Pepping, H. J. and Petroff, E. and Pisano, D. J. and Polatidis, A. G. and Prasad, P. and de Reijer, J. P. R. and Romein, J. W. and Schaap, J. and Schoonderbeek, G. W. and Schulz, R. and van der Schuur, D. and Sclocco, A. and Sluman, J. J. and Smits, R. and Stappers, B. W. and Straal, S. M. and Stuurwold, K. J. C. and Verstappen, J. and Vohl, D. and Wierenga, K. J. and Woestenburg, E. E. M. and Zanting, A. W. and Ziemke, J. (2022) Apertif: Phased array feeds for the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. System overview and performance characteristics. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 658 . Art. No. A146. ISSN 0004-6361. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202141739. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20220216-572639625

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Abstract

We describe the APERture Tile In Focus (Apertif) system, a phased array feed (PAF) upgrade of the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope that transforms this telescope into a high-sensitivity, wide-field-of-view L-band imaging and transient survey instrument. Using novel PAF technology, up to 40 partially overlapping beams are formed on the sky simultaneously, significantly increasing the survey speed of the telescope. With this upgraded instrument, an imaging survey covering an area of 2300 deg² is being performed that will deliver both continuum and spectral line datasets, of which the first data have been publicly released. In addition, a time domain transient and pulsar survey covering 15 000 deg² is in progress. An overview of the Apertif science drivers, hardware, and software of the upgraded telescope is presented, along with its key performance characteristics.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202141739DOIArticle
https://arxiv.org/abs/2109.14234arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
van Cappellen, W. A.0000-0002-3390-2268
Oosterloo, T. A.0000-0002-0616-6971
Verheijen, M. A. W.0000-0001-9022-8081
Adams, E. A. K.0000-0002-9798-5111
Adebahr, B.0000-0002-5447-6878
Hess, K. M.0000-0001-9662-9089
van der Hulst, J. M.0000-0002-9316-763X
Kooistra, E.0000-0002-9427-2757
van Leeuwen, J.0000-0001-8503-6958
Loose, G. M.0000-0003-4721-747X
Morganti, R.0000-0002-9482-6844
Moss, V. A.0000-0002-3005-9738
Schoenmakers, A. P.0000-0002-8606-3955
Wijnholds, S. J.0000-0002-0463-3011
Attema, J. J.0000-0002-0948-1176
Bassa, C. G.0000-0002-1429-9010
de Blok, W. J. G.0000-0001-8957-4518
Connor, L.0000-0002-7587-6352
Gardenier, D. W.0000-0002-4760-152X
Grange, Y. G.0000-0001-5125-9539
Janssen, G. H.0000-0003-3068-3677
Maccagni, F. M.0000-0002-9930-1844
Paragi, Z.0000-0002-5195-335X
Schoonderbeek, G. W.0000-0001-9482-1253
Sclocco, A.0000-0003-3278-0518
Stappers, B. W.0000-0001-9242-7041
Straal, S. M.0000-0003-4136-7848
Vohl, D.0000-0003-1779-4532
Additional Information:© ESO 2022. Received 7 July 2021 / Accepted 17 September 2021. This work makes use of data from the Apertif system installed at the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope owned by ASTRON. ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, is an institute of the Dutch Research Council NWO (De Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek). This work is part of the research programme “Investeringen NWO-groot” with project numbers 175.010.2005.015 and 175.010.2009.012, which are (partly) financed by NWO. UniBoard was a Joint Research Activity in the EC-funded RadioNet FP7 programme, under contract no. 227290, and was led by the Joint Institute for VLBI ERIC (JIVE). Optimisations of the board for production were funded by Samenwerkingsverband Noord-Nederland (SNN). The integration of multiple UniBoards into one mechanical construction was realized through the ExBox project, funded by NWO. MV acknowledges support by NWO through Vici grant 639.043.511. EAKA is supported by the WISE research programme, which is financed by NWO. The research leading to these results received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP/2007-2013), through ERC Grant Agreement No. 291531 (‘HIStoryNU’, PI: JMvdH), ERC Advanced Grant RADIOLIFE-320745 (PI: RM) and ERC Grant Agreement No. 617199 (‘ALERT’, PI: JvL). JvL further acknowledges funding from Vici research programme ‘ARGO’ with project number 639.043.815, financed by NWO. EP acknowledges funding from an NWO Veni Fellowship. SMS was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under grant number NNX17AL74G issued through the NNH16ZDA001N Astrophysics Data Analysis Program (ADAP). DV acknowledges support from the Netherlands eScience Center (NLeSC) under grant ASDI.15.406
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)175.010.2005.015
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)175.010.2009.012
European Research Council (ERC)227290
Samenwerkingsverband Noord-Nederland (SNN)UNSPECIFIED
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)639.043.511
European Research Council (ERC)291531
European Research Council (ERC)320745
European Research Council (ERC)617199
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)639.043.815
NASANNX17AL74G
NASANNH16ZDA001N
Netherlands eScience CenterASDI.15.406
Subject Keywords:telescopes / instrumentation: interferometers / surveys
DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/202141739
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220216-572639625
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20220216-572639625
Official Citation:Apertif: Phased array feeds for the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope - System overview and performance characteristics W. A. van Cappellen, T. A. Oosterloo, M. A. W. Verheijen, E. A. K. Adams, B. Adebahr, R. Braun, K. M. Hess, H. Holties, J. M. van der Hulst, B. Hut, E. Kooistra, J. van Leeuwen, G. M. Loose, R. Morganti, V. A. Moss, E. Orrú, M. Ruiter, A. P. Schoenmakers, N. J. Vermaas, S. J. Wijnholds, A. S. van Amesfoort, M. J. Arts, J. J. Attema, L. Bakker, C. G. Bassa, J. E. Bast, P. Benthem, R. Beukema, R. Blaauw, W. J. G. de Blok, M. Bouwhuis, R. H. van den Brink, L. Connor, A. H. W. M. Coolen, S. Damstra, G. N. J. van Diepen, R. de Goei, H. Dénes, M. Drost, N. Ebbendorf, B. S. Frank, D. W. Gardenier, M. Gerbers, Y. G. Grange, T. Grit, A. W. Gunst, N. Gupta, M. V. Ivashina, G. I. G. Józsa, G. H. Janssen, A. Koster, G. H. Kruithof, S. J. Kuindersma, A. Kutkin, D. M. Lucero, Y. Maan, F. M. Maccagni, J. van der Marel, A. Mika, J. Morawietz, H. Mulder, E. Mulder, M. J. Norden, A. R. Offringa, L. C. Oostrum, R. E. Overeem, Z. Paragi, H. J. Pepping, E. Petroff, D. J. Pisano, A. G. Polatidis, P. Prasad, J. P. R. de Reijer, J. W. Romein, J. Schaap, G. W. Schoonderbeek, R. Schulz, D. van der Schuur, A. Sclocco, J. J. Sluman, R. Smits, B. W. Stappers, S. M. Straal, K. J. C. Stuurwold, J. Verstappen, D. Vohl, K. J. Wierenga, E. E. M. Woestenburg, A. W. Zanting and J. Ziemke A&A, 658 (2022) A146 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202141739
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:113473
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:16 Feb 2022 10:04
Last Modified:16 Feb 2022 22:44

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  • van Cappellen, W. A. and Oosterloo, T. A. and Verheijen, M. A. W. and Adams, E. A. K. and Adebahr, B. and Braun, R. and Hess, K. M. and Holties, H. and van der Hulst, J. M. and Hut, B. and Kooistra, E. and van Leeuwen, J. and Loose, G. M. and Morganti, R. and Moss, V. A. and Orrú, E. and Ruiter, M. and Schoenmakers, A. P. and Vermaas, N. J. and Wijnholds, S. J. and van Amesfoort, A. S. and Arts, M. J. and Attema, J. J. and Bakker, L. and Bassa, C. G. and Bast, J. E. and Benthem, P. and Beukema, R. and Blaauw, R. and de Blok, W. J. G. and Bouwhuis, M. and van den Brink, R. H. and Connor, L. and Coolen, A. H. W. M. and Damstra, S. and van Diepen, G. N. J. and de Goei, R. and Dénes, H. and Drost, M. and Ebbendorf, N. and Frank, B. S. and Gardenier, D. W. and Gerbers, M. and Grange, Y. G. and Grit, T. and Gunst, A. W. and Gupta, N. and Ivashina, M. V. and Józsa, G. I. G. and Janssen, G. H. and Koster, A. and Kruithof, G. H. and Kuindersma, S. J. and Kutkin, A. and Lucero, D. M. and Maan, Y. and Maccagni, F. M. and van der Marel, J. and Mika, A. and Morawietz, J. and Mulder, H. and Mulder, E. and Norden, M. J. and Offringa, A. R. and Oostrum, L. C. and Overeem, R. E. and Paragi, Z. and Pepping, H. J. and Petroff, E. and Pisano, D. J. and Polatidis, A. G. and Prasad, P. and de Reijer, J. P. R. and Romein, J. W. and Schaap, J. and Schoonderbeek, G. W. and Schulz, R. and van der Schuur, D. and Sclocco, A. and Sluman, J. J. and Smits, R. and Stappers, B. W. and Straal, S. M. and Stuurwold, K. J. C. and Verstappen, J. and Vohl, D. and Wierenga, K. J. and Woestenburg, E. E. M. and Zanting, A. W. and Ziemke, J. Apertif: Phased array feeds for the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. System overview and performance characteristics. (deposited 16 Feb 2022 10:04) [Currently Displayed]

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