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A multi-planetary system orbiting the early-M dwarf TOI-1238

González-Álvarez, E. and Zapatero Osorio, M. R. and Sanz-Forcada, J. and Caballero, J. A. and Reffert, S. and Béjar, V. J. S. and Hatzes, A. P. and Herrero, E. and Jeffers, S. V. and Kemmer, J. and López-González, M. J. and Luque, R. and Molaverdikhani, K. and Morello, G. and Nagel, E. and Quirrenbach, A. and Rodríguez, E. and Rodríguez-López, C. and Schlecker, M. and Schweitzer, A. and Stock, S. and Passegger, V. M. and Trifonov, T. and Amado, P. J. and Baker, D. and Boyd, P. T. and Cadieux, C. and Charbonneau, D. and Collins, K. A. and Doyon, R. and Dreizler, S. and Espinoza, N. and Fűrész, G. and Furlan, E. and Hesse, K. and Howell, S. B. and Jenkins, J. M. and Kidwell, R. C. and Latham, D. W. and McLeod, K. K. and Montes, D. and Morales, J. C. and O’Dwyer, T. and Pallé, E. and Pedraz, S. and Reiners, A. and Ribas, I. and Quinn, S. N. and Schnaible, C. and Seager, S. and Skinner, B. and Smith, J. C. and Schwarz, R. P. and Shporer, A. and Vanderspek, R. and Winn, J. N. (2022) A multi-planetary system orbiting the early-M dwarf TOI-1238. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 658 . Art. No. A138. ISSN 0004-6361. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202142128. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20220216-131659605

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Abstract

Context. The number of super-Earth and Earth-mass planet discoveries has increased significantly in the last two decades thanks to the Doppler radial velocity and planetary transit observing techniques. Either technique can detect planet candidates on its own, but the power of a combined photometric and spectroscopic analysis is unique for an insightful characterization of the planets, which in turn has repercussions for our understanding of the architecture of planetary systems and, therefore, their formation and evolution. Aims. Two transiting planet candidates with super-Earth radii around the nearby (d = 70.64 ± 0.06 pc) K7–M0 dwarf star TOI-1238 were announced by NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), which observed the field of TOI-1238 in four different sectors. We aim to validate their planetary nature using precise radial velocities taken with the CARMENES spectrograph. Methods. We obtained 55 CARMENES radial velocity measurements that span the 11 months between 9 May 2020 and 5 April 2021. For a better characterization of the parent star’s activity, we also collected contemporaneous optical photometric observations at the Joan Oró and Sierra Nevada observatories and retrieved archival photometry from the literature. We performed a combined TESS+CARMENES photometric and spectroscopic analysis by including Gaussian processes and Keplerian orbits to account for the stellar activity and planetary signals simultaneously. Results. We estimate that TOI-1238 has a rotation period of 40 ± 5 d based on photometric and spectroscopic data. The combined analysis confirms the discovery of two transiting planets, TOI-1238 b and c, with orbital periods of 0.764597_(−0.000011)^(+0.000013) d and 3.294736_(−0.000036)^(+0.000034) d, masses of 3.76_(−1.07)^(+1.15) M_⊕ and 8.32_(−1.88)^(+1.90) M_⊕, and radii of 1.21_(−0.10)^(+0.11) R_⊕ and 2.11_(−0.14)^(+0.14) R_⊕. They orbit their parent star at semimajor axes of 0.0137 ± 0.0004 au and 0.036 ± 0.001 au, respectively.The two planets are placed on opposite sides of the radius valley for M dwarfs and lie between the star and the inner border of TOI-1238’s habitable zone. The inner super-Earth TOI-1238 b is one of the densest ultra-short-period planets ever discovered (ρ = 11.7_(−3.4)^(+4.2) g cm⁻³). The CARMENES data also reveal the presence of an outer, non-transiting, more massive companion with an orbital period and radial velocity amplitude of ≥600 d and ≥70 m s⁻¹, which implies a likely mass of M ≥ 2 √(1− e²) M_(Jup) and a separation ≥1.1 au from its parent star.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202142128DOIArticle
https://arxiv.org/abs/2111.14602arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
González-Álvarez, E.0000-0002-4820-2053
Furlan, E.0000-0001-9800-6248
Additional Information:© ESO 2022. Received 1 September 2021 / Accepted 16 November 2021. CARMENES is an instrument for the Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán de Calar Alto (CAHA, Almería, Spain). CARMENES is funded by the German Max-Planck- Gesellschaft (MPG), the Spanish Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), the European Union through FEDER/ERF funds, and the members of the CARMENES Consortium (Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Landessternwarte Koönigstuhl, Institut de Ciències de l’Espai, Insitut für Astrophysik Göttingen, Universidad, Complutense de Madrid, Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Hamburger Sternwarte, Centro de Astrobiología and Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán), with additional contributions by the Spanish Ministry of Economy, the state of Baden-Wüttemberg, the German Science Foundation (DFG), the Klaus Tschira Foundation (KTS), and by the Junta de Andalucía. This work was based on data from the CARMENES data archive at CAB (CSIC-INTA). This research has made use of the NASA Exoplanet Archive, which is operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under the Exoplanet Exploration Program. Funding for the TESS mission is provided by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate. This paper includes data collected by the TESS mission that are publicly available from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes. We acknowledge the use of public TESS data from pipelines at the TESS Science Office and at the TESS Science Processing Operations Center. Resources supporting this work were provided by the NASA High-End Computing (HEC) Program through the NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) Division at Ames Research Center for the production of the SPOC data products. Some of the observations in the paper made use of the High-Resolution Imaging instrument ‘Alopeke obtained under Gemini LLP Proposal Number: GN/S-2021A-LP-105. ‘Alopeke was funded by the NASA Exoplanet Exploration Program and built at the NASA Ames Research Center by Steve B. Howell, Nic Scott, Elliott P. Horch, and Emmett Quigley. ‘Alopeke was mounted on the Gemini North (and/or South) telescope of the international Gemini Observatory, a program of NSF’s OIR Lab, which is managed bythe Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), National Research Council (Canada), Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (Argentina), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovações e Comunicações (Brazil), and Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (Republic of Korea). Data were partly collected with the 90 cm telescope at the Sierra Nevada Observatory (SNO) operated by the Instituto de Astrofí fica de Andalucí a (IAA-CSIC). We acknowledge the telescope operators from Observatori Astronómic del Montsec, Sierra Nevada Observatory, and Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán de Calar Alto (CAHA). E.G.A., M.R.Z.O., J.A.C., J.S.F, and D.M. acknowledge financial support from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation through project PID2019-109522GBC5[1:4]. E.G.A also acknowledges support from AEI Project No. MDM-2017-0737 Unidad de Excelencia “María de Maeztu” – Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA). V.M.P. acknowledges financial support from NASA through grant NNX17AG24G. S.V.J. acknowledges the support of the DFG priority program SPP 1992 “Exploring the Diversity of Extrasolar Planets (JE 701/5-1)”. M.J.L.-G., E.R., C.R.-L., and P.J.A. acknowledge financial support from the Agencia Estatal de Investigación of the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación through projects PID2019-109522GB-C52, PID2019-107061GB-C64, PID2019-110689RB-100 and the Centre of Excellence Severo Ochoa Instituto de Astrofí sica de Andalucí a (SEV-2017-0709). G.M. received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 895525. S.S. and S.R. acknowledge support by the DFG Research Unit FOR 2544 Blue Planets around Red Stars, project no. RE 2694/4-1.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Max Planck SocietyUNSPECIFIED
Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)UNSPECIFIED
European Regional Development FundUNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)UNSPECIFIED
state of Baden-WütrtembergUNSPECIFIED
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)SPP 1992
Klaus Tschira FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Junta de AndalucíaUNSPECIFIED
NASA/JPL/CaltechUNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)PID2019-109522GBC5[1:4]
Agencia Estatal de InvestigaciónMDM-2017-0737
NASANNX17AG24G
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)PID2019-109522GB-C52
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)PID2019-107061GB-C64
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)PID2019-110689RB-100
Severo OchoaSEV-2017-0709
Marie Curie Fellowship895525
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)RE 2694/4-1
Subject Keywords:techniques: photometric / techniques: radial velocities / stars: individual: TOI-1238 / stars: late-type / planetary systems
DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/202142128
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220216-131659605
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20220216-131659605
Official Citation:A multi-planetary system orbiting the early-M dwarf TOI-1238 E. González-Álvarez, M. R. Zapatero Osorio, J. Sanz-Forcada, J. A. Caballero, S. Reffert, V. J. S. Béjar, A. P. Hatzes, E. Herrero, S. V. Jeffers, J. Kemmer, M. J. López-González, R. Luque, K. Molaverdikhani, G. Morello, E. Nagel, A. Quirrenbach, E. Rodríguez, C. Rodríguez-López, M. Schlecker, A. Schweitzer, S. Stock, V. M. Passegger, T. Trifonov, P. J. Amado, D. Baker, P. T. Boyd, C. Cadieux, D. Charbonneau, K. A. Collins, R. Doyon, S. Dreizler, N. Espinoza, G. Fűrész, E. Furlan, K. Hesse, S. B. Howell, J. M. Jenkins, R. C. Kidwell, D. W. Latham, K. K. McLeod, D. Montes, J. C. Morales, T. O’Dwyer, E. Pallé, S. Pedraz, A. Reiners, I. Ribas, S. N. Quinn, C. Schnaible, S. Seager, B. Skinner, J. C. Smith, R. P. Schwarz, A. Shporer, R. Vanderspek and J. N. Winn A&A, 658 (2022) A138 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202142128
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:113474
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:16 Feb 2022 10:04
Last Modified:16 Feb 2022 22:28

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  • González-Álvarez, E. and Zapatero Osorio, M. R. and Sanz-Forcada, J. and Caballero, J. A. and Reffert, S. and Béjar, V. J. S. and Hatzes, A. P. and Herrero, E. and Jeffers, S. V. and Kemmer, J. and López-González, M. J. and Luque, R. and Molaverdikhani, K. and Morello, G. and Nagel, E. and Quirrenbach, A. and Rodríguez, E. and Rodríguez-López, C. and Schlecker, M. and Schweitzer, A. and Stock, S. and Passegger, V. M. and Trifonov, T. and Amado, P. J. and Baker, D. and Boyd, P. T. and Cadieux, C. and Charbonneau, D. and Collins, K. A. and Doyon, R. and Dreizler, S. and Espinoza, N. and Fűrész, G. and Furlan, E. and Hesse, K. and Howell, S. B. and Jenkins, J. M. and Kidwell, R. C. and Latham, D. W. and McLeod, K. K. and Montes, D. and Morales, J. C. and O’Dwyer, T. and Pallé, E. and Pedraz, S. and Reiners, A. and Ribas, I. and Quinn, S. N. and Schnaible, C. and Seager, S. and Skinner, B. and Smith, J. C. and Schwarz, R. P. and Shporer, A. and Vanderspek, R. and Winn, J. N. A multi-planetary system orbiting the early-M dwarf TOI-1238. (deposited 16 Feb 2022 10:04) [Currently Displayed]

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