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Estimate of the Mass and Radial Profile of the Orphan-Chenab Stream's Dwarf-galaxy Progenitor Using MilkyWay@home

Mendelsohn, Eric J. and Newberg, Heidi Jo and Shelton, Siddhartha and Widrow, Lawrence M. and Thompson, Jeffery M. and Grillmair, Carl J. (2022) Estimate of the Mass and Radial Profile of the Orphan-Chenab Stream's Dwarf-galaxy Progenitor Using MilkyWay@home. Astrophysical Journal, 926 (2). Art. No. 106. ISSN 0004-637X. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac498a.

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We fit the mass and radial profile of the Orphan–Chenab Stream’s (OCS) dwarf-galaxy progenitor by using turnoff stars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Dark Energy Camera to constrain N-body simulations of the OCS progenitor falling into the Milky Way on the 1.5 PetaFLOPS MilkyWay@home distributed supercomputer. We infer the internal structure of the OCS’s progenitor under the assumption that it was a spherically symmetric dwarf galaxy composed of a stellar system embedded in an extended dark matter halo. We optimize the evolution time, the baryonic and dark matter scale radii, and the baryonic and dark matter masses of the progenitor using a differential evolution algorithm. The likelihood score for each set of parameters is determined by comparing the simulated tidal stream to the angular distribution of OCS stars observed in the sky. We fit the total mass of the OCS’s progenitor to (2.0 ± 0.3) × 10⁷ M_⊙ with a mass-to-light ratio of γ = 73.5 ± 10.6 and (1.1 ± 0.2) × 10⁶ M_⊙ within 300 pc of its center. Within the progenitor’s half-light radius, we estimate a total mass of (4.0 ± 1.0) × 10⁵ M_⊙. We also fit the current sky position of the progenitor’s remnant to be (α, δ) = ((166.0 ± 0.9)°, (−11.1 ± 2.5)°) and show that it is gravitationally unbound at the present time. The measured progenitor mass is on the low end of previous measurements and, if confirmed, lowers the mass range of ultrafaint dwarf galaxies. Our optimization assumes a fixed Milky Way potential, OCS orbit, and radial profile for the progenitor, ignoring the impact of the Large Magellanic Cloud.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Mendelsohn, Eric J.0000-0002-8329-0159
Newberg, Heidi Jo0000-0001-8348-0983
Widrow, Lawrence M.0000-0001-6211-8635
Thompson, Jeffery M.0000-0001-5338-6531
Grillmair, Carl J.0000-0003-4072-169X
Alternate Title:Estimate of the Mass and Radial Profile of the Orphan–Chenab Stream's Dwarf-galaxy Progenitor Using MilkyWay@home, Estimate of the Mass and Radial Profile of the Orphan-Chenab Stream's Dwarf Galaxy Progenitor Using MilkyWay@home
Additional Information:© 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2021 April 17; revised 2021 November 27; accepted 2022 January 5; published 2022 February 17. This work was supported by NSF grant AST19-08653; the NASA/NY Space Grant; contributions made by the Marvin Clan, Babette Josephs, and Manit Limlamai; and the 2015 Crowd Funding Campaign to support Milky Way research. Funding for the SDSS and SDSS-II has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Participating Institutions, the National Science Foundation, the US Department of Energy, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Japanese Monbukagakusho, the Max Planck Society, and the Higher Education Funding Council for England. The SDSS website is The SDSS is managed by the Astrophysical Research Consortium for the Participating Institutions. The Participating Institutions are the American Museum of Natural History, Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, University of Basel, University of Cambridge, Case Western Reserve University, University of Chicago, Drexel University, Fermilab, the Institute for Advanced Study, the Japan Participation Group, Johns Hopkins University, the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, the Korean Scientist Group, the Chinese Academy of Sciences (LAMOST), Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy (MPIA), the Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics (MPA), New Mexico State University, Ohio State University, University of Pittsburgh, University of Portsmouth, Princeton University, the United States Naval Observatory, and the University of Washington. Funding for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, and the Participating Institutions. SDSS-IV acknowledges support and resources from the Center for High Performance Computing at the University of Utah. The SDSS website is SDSS-IV is managed by the Astrophysical Research Consortium for the Participating Institutions of the SDSS Collaboration including the Brazilian Participation Group, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Carnegie Mellon University, Center for Astrophysics—Harvard & Smithsonian, the Chilean Participation Group, the French Participation Group, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, The Johns Hopkins University, Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU)/ University of Tokyo, the Korean Participation Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Leibniz Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA Heidelberg), Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik (MPA Garching), Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), National Astronomical Observatories of China, New Mexico State University, New York University, University of Notre Dame, Observatário Nacional / MCTI, The Ohio State University, Pennsylvania State University, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, United Kingdom Participation Group, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, University of Arizona, University of Colorado Boulder, University of Oxford, University of Portsmouth, University of Utah, University of Virginia, University of Washington, University of Wisconsin, Vanderbilt University, and Yale University. This project used data obtained with the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), which was constructed by the Dark Energy Survey (DES) collaboration. Funding for the DES Projects has been provided by the DOE and NSF(USA), MISE(Spain), STFC(UK), HEFCE(UK), NCSA(UIUC), KICP(U. Chicago), CCAPP(Ohio State), MIFPA(Texas A&M), CNPQ, FAPERJ, FINEP (Brazil), MINECO(Spain), DFG(Germany) and the collaborating institutions in the Dark Energy Survey, which are Argonne Lab, UC Santa Cruz, University of Cambridge, CIEMATMadrid, University of Chicago, University College London, DES-Brazil Consortium, University of Edinburgh, ETH Zurich, Fermilab, University of Illinois, ICE (IEECCSIC), IFAE Barcelona, Lawrence Berkeley Lab, LMU Munchen and the associated Excellence Cluster Universe, University of Michigan, NOAO, University of Nottingham, Ohio State University, University of Pennsylvania, University of Portsmouth, SLAC National Lab, Stanford University, University of Sussex, and Texas A&M University. This research has made use of the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive, which is funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and operated by the California Institute of Technology. Facilities: CTIO:Blanco (DECam) - , IRSA - , SDSS. -
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
New York Space Grant ConsortiumUNSPECIFIED
the Marvin ClanUNSPECIFIED
Babette JosephsUNSPECIFIED
2015 Crowd Funding Campaign to support Milky Way researchUNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Participating InstitutionsUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
Japanese MonbukagakushoUNSPECIFIED
Max Planck SocietyUNSPECIFIED
Higher Education Funding Council for EnglandUNSPECIFIED
Dark Energy Survey (DES) collaborationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Galaxy structure; Galaxy kinematics; Galaxy stellar content; Milky Way dynamics; Dwarf galaxies; Stellar streams
Issue or Number:2
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Galaxy structure (622); Galaxy kinematics (602); Galaxy stellar content (621); Milky Way dynamics (1051); Dwarf galaxies (416); Stellar streams (2166)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220217-686729000
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Official Citation:Eric J. Mendelsohn et al 2022 ApJ 926 106
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:113488
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:17 Feb 2022 21:37
Last Modified:17 Feb 2022 21:37

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