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Termination 1 Millennial-Scale Rainfall Events Over the Sunda Shelf

Buckingham, F. L. and Carolin, S. A. and Partin, J. W. and Adkins, J. F. and Cobb, K. M. and Day, C. C. and Ding, Q. and He, C. and Liu, Z. and Otto-Bliesner, B. and Roberts, W. H. G. and Lejau, S. and Malang, J. (2022) Termination 1 Millennial-Scale Rainfall Events Over the Sunda Shelf. Geophysical Research Letters, 49 (5). Art. No. e2021GL096937. ISSN 0094-8276. doi:10.1029/2021gl096937.

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Recent paleoclimate reconstructions have suggested millennial-scale variability in the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool region coincident with events of the last deglaciation. Here, we present a new stalagmite oxygen isotope record from northern Borneo, which today is located near the center of the region's mean annual intertropical convergence zone. The record spans the full deglaciation, and reveals for the first time distinct oxygen isotope variations at this location connected with the Bølling-Allerød onset and the Younger Dryas event. The full deglaciation in the Borneo stalagmite proxy reconstruction appears remarkably similar to a 20–11 ka transient simulation of rainfall over the area produced using the isotope-enabled Community Earth System Model. In this model, periods of weakened Atlantic Ocean meridional overturning circulation are associated with an anomalous Western North Pacific anticyclone, which is produced in boreal autumn and shifts south over Borneo during boreal winter, causing dry conditions.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription ItemNOAA NCDC
Buckingham, F. L.0000-0001-5793-9121
Carolin, S. A.0000-0001-7181-2370
Partin, J. W.0000-0003-0315-5545
Adkins, J. F.0000-0002-3174-5190
Cobb, K. M.0000-0002-2125-9164
Day, C. C.0000-0001-6875-769X
Ding, Q.0000-0003-3634-0181
He, C.0000-0003-1453-9691
Liu, Z.0000-0003-4554-2666
Otto-Bliesner, B.0000-0003-1911-1598
Roberts, W. H. G.0000-0002-8249-1901
Additional Information:© 2022 American Geophysical Union. Issue Online: 24 February 2022; Version of Record online: 24 February 2022; Accepted manuscript online: 15 February 2022; Manuscript accepted: 31 January 2022; Manuscript revised: 28 January 2022; Manuscript received: 08 November 2021. We wish to thank all of the staff, freelance guides, and locals at Gunung Mulu National Park for their assistance in field work and sample collection over the past 15+ years. Thanks to David Battisti for his efforts in assisting select authors of this article with computation and model analysis basics in preparation for this project. Thanks to Alan Hsieh and Andrew Mason at the University of Oxford, and Guillaume Paris and Sophie Hines when at Caltech for their assistance with U-Th analysis. Thanks to Gideon Henderson for his support and encouragement, and to Nele Meckler, Yves Krüger, and Marit Løland for helpful discussion. Thanks to the reviewers for their time and comments. Permits for this work were granted by the Malaysian Economic Planning Unit, the Sarawak State Planning Unit, and the Sarawak Forestry Department. This work was supported by a Geological Society 2016 Research Grant (UK) and a Royal Society International Exchanges Award (UK). The authors declare no conflicts of interest relevant to this study. Data Availability Statement: All data are publicly available on NOAA NCDC ( and Zenodo (
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Geological Society (UK)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Speleothem; Stable isotopes; Termination 1; Younger Dryas; Model data comparison; Indo-Pacific Warm Pool
Issue or Number:5
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220217-687026000
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Buckingham, F. L., Carolin, S. A., Partin, J. W., Adkins, J. F., Cobb, K. M., Day, C. C., et al. (2022). Termination 1 millennial-scale rainfall events over the Sunda Shelf. Geophysical Research Letters, 49, e2021GL096937.
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:113493
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:17 Feb 2022 21:04
Last Modified:09 Mar 2022 19:24

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