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Assessing the Influence of Input Magnetic Maps on Global Modeling of the Solar Wind and CME-Driven Shock in the 2013 April 11 Event

Jin, Meng and Nitta, Nariaki V. and Cohen, Christina M. (2022) Assessing the Influence of Input Magnetic Maps on Global Modeling of the Solar Wind and CME-Driven Shock in the 2013 April 11 Event. Space Weather, 20 (3). Art. No. e2021SW002894. ISSN 1542-7390. doi:10.1029/2021sw002894.

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In the past decade, significant efforts have been made in developing physics-based solar wind and coronal mass ejection (CME) models, which have been or are being transferred to national centers (e.g., SWPC, Community Coordinated Modeling Center) to enable space weather predictive capability. However, the input data coverage for space weather forecasting is extremely limited. One major limitation is the solar magnetic field measurements, which are used to specify the inner boundary conditions of the global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models. In this study, using the Alfvén wave solar model, we quantitatively assess the influence of the magnetic field map input (synoptic/diachronic vs. synchronic magnetic maps) on the global modeling of the solar wind and the CME-driven shock in the 11 April 2013 solar energetic particle event. Our study shows that due to the inhomogeneous background solar wind and dynamical evolution of the CME, the CME-driven shock parameters change significantly both spatially and temporally as the CME propagates through the heliosphere. The input magnetic map has a great impact on the shock connectivity and shock properties in the global MHD simulation. Therefore this study illustrates the importance of taking into account the model uncertainty due to the imperfect magnetic field measurements when using the model to provide space weather predictions.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription ItemSpace Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) ItemStanford HMI diachronic magnetic map ItemAWSoM and EEGGL models at NASA CCMC ItemSpacecraft location data data
Jin, Meng0000-0002-9672-3873
Nitta, Nariaki V.0000-0001-6119-0221
Cohen, Christina M.0000-0002-0978-8127
Additional Information:© 2022. The Authors. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Issue Online: 26 February 2022; Version of Record online: 26 February 2022; Accepted manuscript online: 17 February 2022; Manuscript accepted: 11 February 2022; Manuscript revised: 04 February 2022; Manuscript received: 27 August 2021. We are very grateful to the referees for invaluable comments that helped improve the paper. We thank Marc DeRosa at LMSAL for the helpful discussion on the LM synchronic magnetic maps. Meng Jin, Nariaki V. Nitta, and Christina M. S. Cohen are supported by NASA HSR grant 80NSSC18K1126. We thank the simulation results were obtained using the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF), developed at the Center for Space Environment Modeling (CSEM), University of Michigan ( We are thankful for the use of the NASA Supercomputer Pleiades at Ames and for its supporting staff for making it possible to perform the simulations presented in this paper. SDO is the first mission of NASA's Living with a Star Program. Data Availability Statement: The LM synchronic magnetic map was downloaded directly from the PFSS package in SSWIDL. The Stanford HMI diachronic magnetic map is accessible at JSOC ( The AWSoM and EEGGL models used in this study are available through NASA CCMC ( The spacecraft location data were downloaded from The simulation data used in this study is available at https://10.5281/zenodo.5787007.
Group:Space Radiation Laboratory
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Issue or Number:3
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220222-707155000
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Official Citation:Jin, M., Nitta, N. V., & Cohen, C. M. S. (2022). Assessing the influence of input magnetic maps on global modeling of the solar wind and CME-driven shock in the 2013 April 11 event. Space Weather, 20, e2021SW002894.
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:113536
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:22 Feb 2022 23:12
Last Modified:22 Mar 2022 20:45

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