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Gaia GraL: Gaia DR2 Gravitational Lens Systems. VII. XMM-Newton Observations of Lensed Quasars

Connor, Thomas and Stern, Daniel and Krone-Martins, Alberto and Djorgovski, S. G. and Graham, Matthew J. and Walton, Dominic J. and Delchambre, Ludovic and Ducourant, Christine and Teixeira, Ramachrisna and Le Campion, Jean-François and den Brok, Jakob Sebastian and Dobie, Dougal and Galluccio, Laurent and Jalan, Priyanka and Klioner, Sergei A. and Klüter, Jonas and Mahabal, Ashish A. and Negi, Vibhore and Nierenberg, Anna and Petit, Quentin and Scarano, Sergio, Jr. and Slezak, Eric and Sluse, Dominique and Spíndola-Duarte, Carolina and Surdej, Jean and Wambsganss, Joachim (2022) Gaia GraL: Gaia DR2 Gravitational Lens Systems. VII. XMM-Newton Observations of Lensed Quasars. Astrophysical Journal, 927 (1). Art. No. 45. ISSN 0004-637X. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac4476.

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We present XMM-Newton X-ray observations of nine confirmed lensed quasars at 1 ≲ z ≲ 3 identified by the Gaia Gravitational Lens program. Eight systems are strongly detected, with 0.3–8.0 keV fluxes F_(0.3−8.0) ≳ 5 ×10⁻¹⁴ erg cm⁻² s⁻¹. Modeling the X-ray spectra with an absorbed power law, we derive power-law photon indices and 2–10 keV luminosities for the eight detected quasars. In addition to presenting sample properties for larger quasar population studies and for use in planning for future caustic-crossing events, we also identify three quasars of interest: a quasar that shows evidence of flux variability from previous ROSAT observations, the most closely separated individual lensed sources resolved by XMM-Newton, and one of the X-ray brightest quasars known at z > 3. These sources represent the tip of the discoveries that will be enabled by SRG/eROSITA.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Connor, Thomas0000-0002-7898-7664
Stern, Daniel0000-0003-2686-9241
Krone-Martins, Alberto0000-0002-2308-6623
Djorgovski, S. G.0000-0002-0603-3087
Graham, Matthew J.0000-0002-3168-0139
Walton, Dominic J.0000-0001-5819-3552
Delchambre, Ludovic0000-0003-2559-408X
Ducourant, Christine0000-0003-4843-8979
Teixeira, Ramachrisna0000-0002-6806-6626
den Brok, Jakob Sebastian0000-0002-8760-6157
Dobie, Dougal0000-0003-0699-7019
Galluccio, Laurent0000-0002-8541-0476
Jalan, Priyanka0000-0002-0524-5328
Klioner, Sergei A.0000-0003-4682-7831
Klüter, Jonas0000-0002-3469-5133
Mahabal, Ashish A.0000-0003-2242-0244
Negi, Vibhore0000-0001-5824-1040
Nierenberg, Anna0000-0001-6809-2536
Scarano, Sergio, Jr.0000-0003-3739-4288
Sluse, Dominique0000-0001-6116-2095
Spíndola-Duarte, Carolina0000-0002-8052-7763
Surdej, Jean0000-0002-7005-1976
Wambsganss, Joachim0000-0002-8365-7619
Additional Information:© 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2021 September 28; revised 2021 December 14; accepted 2021 December 15; published 2022 March 3. The work of T.C. and D.S. was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. T.C.'s research was supported by an appointment to the NASA Postdoctoral Program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, administered by Universities Space Research Association under contract with NASA. S.G.D. and M.J.G. acknowledge a partial support from the NASA ADAP grant 16-ADAP16-0232, and the NSF grant AST-1815034. D.J.W. acknowledges support from the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) in the form of an Ernest Rutherford Fellowship (grant ST/N004027/1). L.D. acknowledges support from the ESA PRODEX Programme "Gaia-DPAC QSOs" and from the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office. S.A.K. was partially supported by the German Aerospace Agency (grant 50QG1402). D.S. acknowledges support from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement No. 787886). Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA. Facility: XMM - Newton X-Ray Multimirror Mission satellite. Software: CIAO (Fruscione et al. 2006), PyFITS (Barrett & Bridgman 1999), SAS (Gabriel et al. 2004), XSPEC (Arnaud 1996).
Group:Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASA Postdoctoral ProgramUNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/N004027/1
European Space Agency (ESA)UNSPECIFIED
Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO)UNSPECIFIED
Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR)50QG1402
European Research Council (ERC)787886
Subject Keywords:Quasars; Strong gravitational lensing; X-ray astronomy; X-ray quasars; Scaling relations
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Quasars (1319); Strong gravitational lensing (1643); X-ray astronomy (1810); X-ray quasars (1821); Scaling relations (2031)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220223-214606017
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Thomas Connor et al 2022 ApJ 927 45
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:113564
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:24 Feb 2022 22:50
Last Modified:15 Mar 2022 21:08

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