A Caltech Library Service

The Hydrogen-Poor Superluminous Supernovae from the Zwicky Transient Facility Phase-I Survey: I. Data

Chen, Z. H. and Yan, Lin and Kangas, T. and Lunnan, R. and Schulze, S. and Sollerman, J. and Perley, D. A. and Chen, T.-W. and Gal-Yam, A. and Wang, X. F. and Andreoni, I. and Bellm, E. and Bloom, J. S. and Burdge, K. and Burgos, A. and Cook, D. and Dahiwale, A. and De, K. and Dekany, R. and Dugas, A. and Frederik, S. and Fremling, C. and Graham, M. and Hankins, M. and Ho, A. and Jencson, J. and Karambelkar, V. and Kasliwal, M. and Kulkarni, S. and Laher, R. and Rusholme, B. and Sharma, Y. and Taddia, F. and Taggart, K. and Tartaglia, L. and Tzanidakis, A. and van Roestel, J. and Walters, R. and Yang, Y. and Yao, Y. H. and Yaron, O. (2022) The Hydrogen-Poor Superluminous Supernovae from the Zwicky Transient Facility Phase-I Survey: I. Data. . (Unpublished)

[img] PDF - Submitted Version
Creative Commons Attribution.


Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


During the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) Phase-I operation, 78 hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSNe-I) were discovered in less than three years, making up the largest sample from a single survey. This paper (Paper I) presents the data, including the optical/ultraviolet light curves and classification spectra, while Paper II in this series will focus on the detailed analysis of the light curves and modeling. Our photometry is primarily taken by the ZTF in the g,r,i bands, and with additional data from other ground-based facilities and Swift. The events of our sample cover a redshift range of z = 0.06−0.67, with a median and 1σ error (16% and 84% percentiles) z_(med) = 0.265^(+0.143)_(−0.135). The peak luminosity covers −22.9 mag ≤ M_(g,peak) ≤ −19.9 mag, with a median value of −21.54^(+1.12)_(−0.61) mag. Their light curves evolve slowly with the mean rest-frame rise time of t_(rise) = 42.0 ± 17.8days. The luminosity and time scale distributions suggest that low luminosity SLSNe-I with peak luminosity ∼−20mag or extremely fast rising events (<10−15 days) exist but are rare. We confirm previous findings that slowly rising SLSNe-I also tend to fade slowly. The rest-frame color and temperature evolution show large scatters, suggesting that the SLSN-I population may have diverse spectral energy distributions. The peak rest-frame color shows a moderate correlation with the peak absolute magnitude, i.e. brighter SLSNe-I tend to have bluer colors. With optical and ultraviolet photometry, we construct bolometric luminosity and derive a bolometric correction relation generally applicable for converting g,r-band photometry to bolometric luminosity for SLSNe-I.

Item Type:Report or Paper (Discussion Paper)
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Yan, Lin0000-0003-1710-9339
Lunnan, R.0000-0001-9454-4639
Schulze, S.0000-0001-6797-1889
Sollerman, J.0000-0003-1546-6615
Perley, D. A.0000-0001-8472-1996
Chen, T.-W.0000-0002-1066-6098
Gal-Yam, A.0000-0002-3653-5598
Andreoni, I.0000-0002-8977-1498
Bellm, E.0000-0001-8018-5348
Bloom, J. S.0000-0002-7777-216X
Burdge, K.0000-0002-7226-836X
Cook, D.0000-0002-6877-7655
De, K.0000-0002-8989-0542
Dekany, R.0000-0002-5884-7867
Dugas, A.0000-0001-7344-0208
Fremling, C.0000-0002-4223-103X
Graham, M.0000-0002-3168-0139
Hankins, M.0000-0001-9315-8437
Ho, A.0000-0002-9017-3567
Jencson, J.0000-0001-5754-4007
Karambelkar, V.0000-0003-2758-159X
Kasliwal, M.0000-0002-5619-4938
Kulkarni, S.0000-0001-5390-8563
Laher, R.0000-0003-2451-5482
Rusholme, B.0000-0001-7648-4142
Sharma, Y.0000-0003-4531-1745
Taddia, F.0000-0002-2387-6801
Taggart, K.0000-0002-5748-4558
Tartaglia, L.0000-0003-3433-1492
Tzanidakis, A.0000-0003-0484-3331
van Roestel, J.0000-0002-2626-2872
Walters, R.0000-0002-1835-6078
Yao, Y. H.0000-0001-6747-8509
Yaron, O.0000-0002-0301-8017
Additional Information:Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0). We acknowledge very helpful discussions about LC fitting using CSM models with Dr. Weili Lin from Tsinghua University. Based on observations obtained with the Samuel Oschin Telescope 48-inch and the 60-inch Telescope at the Palomar Observatory as part of the Zwicky Transient Facility project. ZTF is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST-1440341 and a collaboration including Caltech, IPAC, the Weizmann Institute for Science, the Oskar Klein Center at Stockholm University, the University of Maryland, the University of Washington, Deutsches ElektronenSynchrotron and Humboldt University, Los Alamos National Laboratories, the TANGO Consortium of Taiwan, the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories. Operations are conducted by COO, IPAC, and UW. SED Machine is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1106171. The ZTF forced-photometry service was funded under the Heising-Simons Foundation grant #12540303 (PI: Graham). The Liverpool Telescope is operated on the island of La Palma by Liverpool John Moores University in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias with financial support from the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council. The Nordic Optical Telescope is owned in collaboration by the University of Turku and Aarhus University, and operated jointly by Aarhus University, the University of Turku and the University of Oslo, representing Denmark, Finland and Norway, the University of Iceland and Stockholm University at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. This research has made use of data obtained through the High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center Online Service, provided by the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. This work was supported by the GROWTH project funded by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1545949. S. Schulze acknowledges support from the G.R.E.A.T research environment, funded by Vetenskapsrådet, the Swedish Research Council, project number 2016-06012. R. L. acknowledges support from a Marie Skłodowska-Curie Individual Fellowship within the Horizon 2020 European Union (EU) Framework Programme for Research and Innovation (H2020-MSCA-IF-2017-794467). A. Gal-Yam acknowledges support from the EU via ERC grant No. 725161, the ISF GW excellence center, an IMOS space infrastructure grant and BSF/Transformative and GIF grants, as well as the André Deloro Institute for Advanced Research in Space and Optics, the Schwartz/Reisman Collaborative Science Program and the Norman E Alexander Family M Foundation ULTRASAT Data Center Fund, Minerva and Yeda-Sela. The work of X. Wang is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC grants 12033003 and 11633002), the Major State Basic Research Development Program (grant 2016YFA0400803), the Scholar Program of Beijing Academy of Science and Technology (DZ:BS202002), and the Tencent XPLORER Prize. Facilities: PO:1.2m, PO:Hale, Liverpool:2m, NOT:2.56m, Keck:I, WHT:4.2m Software: Scikit-learn (Pedregosa et al. 2011), FIREFLY (Wilkinson et al. 2017), george (Ambikasaran et al. 2015), heasoft (
Group:Astronomy Department, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), Zwicky Transient Facility
Funding AgencyGrant Number
ZTF partner institutionsUNSPECIFIED
Heising-Simons Foundation12540303
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Swedish Research Council2016-06012
Marie Curie Fellowship794467
European Research Council (ERC)725161
Israel Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science (Israel)UNSPECIFIED
German-Israeli Foundation for Research and DevelopmentUNSPECIFIED
André Deloro Institute for Advanced Research in Space and OpticsUNSPECIFIED
Schwartz/Reisman Collaborative Science ProgramUNSPECIFIED
Norman E. Alexander Family M. FoundationUNSPECIFIED
National Natural Science Foundation of China12033003
National Natural Science Foundation of China11633002
National Program on Key Research and Development Project2016YFA0400803
Beijing Academy of Science and TechnologyBS202002
Subject Keywords:Stars: supernovae: general
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220224-200931795
Persistent URL:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:113603
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:01 Mar 2022 19:23
Last Modified:01 Mar 2022 19:23

Repository Staff Only: item control page