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Cluster assembly and the origin of mass segregation in the STARFORGE simulations

Guszejnov, Dávid and Markey, Carleen and Offner, Stella S. R. and Grudić, Michael Y. and Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André and Rosen, Anna L. and Hopkins, Philip F. (2022) Cluster assembly and the origin of mass segregation in the STARFORGE simulations. . (Unpublished) https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20220228-183312768

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Abstract

Stars form in dense, clustered environments, where feedback from newly formed stars eventually ejects the gas, terminating star formation and leaving behind one or more star clusters. Using the STARFORGE simulations, for the first time it is possible to simulate this process in its entirety within a molecular cloud, while explicitly evolving the gas radiation and magnetic fields and following the formation of individual, low-mass stars. We find that individual star-formation sites merge to form ever larger structures, while still accreting gas. Thus clusters are assembled through a series of mergers. During the cluster assembly process a small fraction of stars are ejected from their clusters; we find no significant difference between the mass distribution of the ejected stellar population and that of stars inside clusters. The star-formation sites that are the building blocks of clusters start out mass segregated with one or a few massive stars at their center. As they merge the newly formed clusters maintain this feature, causing them to have mass-segregated substructures without themselves being centrally condensed. The cluster relaxes through dynamical interactions to a centralized configuration, but this process does not finish before feedback expels the remaining gas from the cluster. The gas-free clusters then become unbound and break up. We find that turbulent driving and a periodic cloud geometry can significantly reduce clustering and prevent gas expulsion. Meanwhile, the initial surface density and level of turbulence have little qualitative effect on cluster evolution, despite the significantly different star formation histories.


Item Type:Report or Paper (Discussion Paper)
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://arxiv.org/abs/2201.01781arXivDiscussion Paper
http://www.tapir.caltech.edu/~phopkins/Site/GIZMO.htmlRelated ItemGizmo code
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Guszejnov, Dávid0000-0001-5541-3150
Markey, Carleen0000-0003-0629-8840
Offner, Stella S. R.0000-0003-1252-9916
Grudić, Michael Y.0000-0002-1655-5604
Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André0000-0002-4900-6628
Rosen, Anna L.0000-0003-4423-0660
Hopkins, Philip F.0000-0003-3729-1684
Additional Information:We would like to thank Sinan Deger for his thoughtful comments. DG is supported by the Harlan J. Smith McDonald Observatory Postdoctoral Fellowship and the Cottrell Fellowships Award (#27982) from the Research Corporation for Science Advancement. Support for MYG was provided by NASA through the NASA Hubble Fellowship grant #HST-HF2-51479 awarded by the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract NAS5-26555 Support for PFH was provided by NSF Collaborative Research Grants 1715847 & 1911233, NSF CAREER grant 1455342, and NASA grants 80NSSC18K0562 & JPL 1589742. SSRO and CM are supported by NSF Career Award AST-1748571 and by a Cottrell Scholar Award from the Research Corporation for Science Advancement. CAFG was supported by NSF through grants AST-1715216, AST-2108230, and CAREER award AST-1652522; by NASA through grant 17-ATP17-0067; by STScI through grant HST-AR-16124.001-A; and by the Research Corporation for Science Advancement through a Cottrell Scholar Award. ALR acknowledges support from Harvard University through the ITC Postdoctoral Fellowship. This work used computational resources provided by XSEDE allocation AST-190018, the Frontera allocation AST-20019, and additional resources provided by the University of Texas at Austin and the Texas Advanced Computing Center (TACC; http://www.tacc.utexas.edu). DATA AVAILABILITY. The data supporting the plots within this article are available on reasonable request to the corresponding authors. A public version of the GIZMO code is available at http://www.tapir.caltech.edu/~phopkins/Site/GIZMO.html.
Group:TAPIR, Astronomy Department
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Harlan J. Smith McDonald ObservatoryUNSPECIFIED
Cottrell Scholar of Research Corporation27982
NASA Hubble FellowshipHST-HF2-51479
NASANAS5-26555
NSFAST-1715847
NSFAST-1911233
NSFAST-1455342
NASA80NSSC18K0562
JPL1589742
NSFAST-1748571
NSFAST-1715216
NSFAST-2108230
NSFAST-1652522
NASA17-ATP17-0067
NASAHST-AR-16124.001-A
Harvard UniversityUNSPECIFIED
NSFAST-190018
NSFAST-20019
University of Texas at AustinUNSPECIFIED
Texas Advanced Computing Center (TACC)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:galaxies: star clusters: general – stars: formation – stars: kinematics and dynamics – stars: luminosity function, mass function
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220228-183312768
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20220228-183312768
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:113651
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:28 Feb 2022 23:01
Last Modified:28 Feb 2022 23:01

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