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Fault Zone Imaging With Distributed Acoustic Sensing: Surface-To-Surface Wave Scattering

Yang, Yan and Zhan, Zhongwen and Shen, Zhichao and Atterholt, James (2022) Fault Zone Imaging With Distributed Acoustic Sensing: Surface-To-Surface Wave Scattering. Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth, 127 (6). Art. No. e2022JB024329. ISSN 2169-9313. doi:10.1029/2022jb024329.

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Fault zone complexities contain important information about factors controlling earthquake dynamic rupture. High-resolution fault zone imaging requires high-quality data from dense arrays and new seismic imaging techniques that can utilize large portions of recorded waveforms. Recently, the emerging Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) technique has enabled near-surface imaging by utilizing existing telecommunication infrastructure and anthropogenic noise sources. With dense sensors at several meters' spacing, the unaliased wavefield can provide unprecedented details for fault zones. In this work, we use a DAS array converted from a 10-km underground fiber-optic cable across Ridgecrest City, California. We report clear acausal and coda signals in ambient noise cross-correlations caused by surface-to-surface wave scattering. We use these scattering-related waves to locate and characterize potential faults. The mapped fault locations are generally consistent with those in the United States Geological Survey Quaternary Fault database of the United States but are more accurate than the extrapolated ones. We also use waveform modeling to infer that a 35 m wide, 90 m deep fault with 30% velocity reduction can best fit the observed scattered coda waves for one of the identified fault zones. These findings demonstrate the potential of DAS for passive imaging of fine-scale faults in an urban environment.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription ItemFault zone data Paper
Yang, Yan0000-0002-6105-2918
Zhan, Zhongwen0000-0002-5586-2607
Shen, Zhichao0000-0003-0458-5264
Atterholt, James0000-0003-1603-5518
Additional Information:© 2022. American Geophysical Union. Issue Online: 18 June 2022; Version of Record online: 18 June 2022; Accepted manuscript online: 11 June 2022; Manuscript accepted: 08 June 2022; Manuscript revised: 25 May 2022; Manuscript received: 03 March 2022. The authors would like to thank Yida Li for helpful discussion on surface wave scattering. This study is funded by the National Science Foundation through the Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) award number 1848166, the Braun Trust, and the United States Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program award number G22AP00067. JA is supported by Graduate Research Fellowships Program number DGE-1745301. We would also like to thank the California Broadband Cooperative for fiber access in the Digital 395 project. Data Availability Statement: The common-shot gather of noise cross-correlations and the group velocity model that are used in locating the faults are publicly available ( Fault zone data in Figure 1 are downloaded from U.S. Geological Survey. (2019).
Group:Seismological Laboratory
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1745301
Subject Keywords:fault zone; distributed acoustic sensing; surface wave scattering
Issue or Number:6
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220307-188845000
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Yang, Y., Zhan, Z., Shen, Z., & Atterholt, J. (2022). Fault zone imaging with distributed acoustic sensing: Surface-to-surface wave scattering. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 127, e2022JB024329.
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:113769
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:08 Mar 2022 16:36
Last Modified:15 Jul 2022 19:14

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