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Revelations on Jupiter's formation, evolution and interior: Challenges from Juno results

Helled, Ravit and Stevenson, David J. and Lunine, Jonathan I. and Bolton, Scott J. and Nettelmann, Nadine and Atreya, Sushil and Guillot, Tristan and Militzer, Burkhard and Miguel, Yamila and Hubbard, William B. (2022) Revelations on Jupiter's formation, evolution and interior: Challenges from Juno results. Icarus, 378 . Art. No. 114937. ISSN 0019-1035. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2022.114937.

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The Juno mission has revolutionized and challenged our understanding of Jupiter. As Juno transitioned into its extended mission, we review the major findings of Jupiter's internal structure relevant to understanding Jupiter's formation and evolution. Results from Juno's investigation of Jupiter's interior structure imply that the planet has compositional gradients and is accordingly non-adiabatic, with a complex internal structure. These new results imply that current models of Jupiter's formation and evolution require a revision. In this paper, we discuss potential formation and evolution paths that can lead to an internal structure model consistent with Juno data, and the constraints they provide. We note that standard core accretion formation models, including the heavy-element enrichment during planetary growth is consistent with an interior that is inhomogeneous with composition gradients in its deep interior. However, such formation models typically predict that this region, which could be interpreted as a primordial dilute core, is confined to ∼10% of Jupiter's total mass. In contrast, structure models that fit Juno data imply that this region contains 30% of the mass or more. One way to explain the origin of this extended region is by invoking a relatively long (~2 Myrs) formation phase where the growing planet accretes gas and planetesimals delaying the runaway gas accretion. This is not the same as the delay that appears in standard giant planet formation models because it involves additional accretion of solids in that period. However, both the possible new picture and the old picture are compatible with the formation scenario recently proposed to explain the separation of two meteoritic populations in the solar system. Alternatively, Jupiter's fuzzy core could be a result of a giant impact or convection post-formation. These novel scenarios require somewhat special and specific conditions. Clarity on the plausibility of such conditions could come from future high-resolution observations of planet-forming regions around other stars, from the observed and modeled architectures of extrasolar systems with giant planets, and future Juno data obtained during its extended mission.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Helled, Ravit0000-0001-5555-2652
Stevenson, David J.0000-0001-9432-7159
Lunine, Jonathan I.0000-0003-2279-4131
Bolton, Scott J.0000-0002-9115-0789
Atreya, Sushil0000-0002-1972-1815
Guillot, Tristan0000-0002-7188-8428
Militzer, Burkhard0000-0002-7092-5629
Miguel, Yamila0000-0002-0747-8862
Additional Information:© 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license. Received 10 December 2021, Revised 31 January 2022, Accepted 1 February 2022, Available online 7 February 2022, Version of Record 24 February 2022. RH thanks S. Müller, Ssingle bondF. Lui, A. Vazan & C. Valletta as well as support from the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) via grant 200020_188460. We thank the two anonymous referees for valuable comments. JIL gratefully acknowledges support from the Juno mission through the Southwest Research Institute, Contract number NNM06AA75C. Declaration of Competing Interest: None.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)200020_188460
Subject Keywords:Planets and satellites: Interiors; Planets and satellites: Composition
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220308-454044000
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Official Citation:Ravit Helled, David J. Stevenson, Jonathan I. Lunine, Scott J. Bolton, Nadine Nettelmann, Sushil Atreya, Tristan Guillot, Burkhard Militzer, Yamila Miguel, William B. Hubbard, Revelations on Jupiter's formation, evolution and interior: Challenges from Juno results, Icarus, Volume 378, 2022, 114937, ISSN 0019-1035,
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:113799
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:09 Mar 2022 16:31
Last Modified:09 Mar 2022 16:31

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