A Caltech Library Service

Multiwavelength study of the gravitationally lensed blazar QSO B0218+357 between 2016 and 2020

Acciari, V. A. and Ansoldi, S. and Antonelli, L. A. and Arbet Engels, A. and Artero, M. and Asano, K. and Baack, D. and Babić, A. and Baquero, A. and Barres de Almeida, U. and Barrio, J. A. and Batković, I. and Becerra González, J. and Bednarek, W. and Bellizzi, L. and Bernardini, E. and Bernardos, M. and Berti, A. and Besenrieder, J. and Bhattacharyya, W. and Bigongiari, C. and Biland, A. and Blanch, O. and Bonnoli, G. and Bošnjak, Ž and Busetto, G. and Carosi, R. and Ceribella, G. and Cerruti, M. and Chai, Y. and Chilingarian, A. and Cikota, S. and Colak, S. M. and Colombo, E. and Contreras, J. L. and Cortina, J. and Covino, S. and D’Amico, G. and D’Elia, V. and Da Vela, P. and Dazzi, F. and De Angelis, A. and De Lotto, B. and Delfino, M. and Delgado, J. and Delgado Mendez, C. and Depaoli, D. and Di Pierro, F. and Di Venere, L. and Do Souto Espiñeira, E. and Dominis Prester, D. and Donini, A. and Dorner, D. and Doro, M. and Elsaesser, D. and Fallah Ramazani, V. and Fattorini, A. and Ferrara, G. and Fonseca, M. V. and Font, L. and Fruck, C. and Fukami, S. and García López, R. J. and Garczarczyk, M. and Gasparyan, S. and Gaug, M. and Giglietto, N. and Giordano, F. and Gliwny, P. and Godinović, N. and Green, J. G. and Green, D. and Hadasch, D. and Hahn, A. and Heckmann, L. and Herrera, J. and Hoang, J. and Hrupec, D. and Hütten, M. and Inada, T. and Inoue, S. and Ishio, K. and Iwamura, Y. and Jiménez, I. and Jormanainen, J. and Jouvin, L. and Kajiwara, Y. and Karjalainen, M. and Kerszberg, D. and Kobayashi, Y. and Kubo, H. and Kushida, J. and Lamastra, A. and Lelas, D. and Leone, F. and Lindfors, E. and Lombardi, S. and Longo, F. and López-Coto, R. and López-Moya, M. and López-Oramas, A. and Loporchio, S. and Machado de Oliveira Fraga, B. and Maggio, C. and Majumdar, P. and Makariev, M. and Mallamaci, M. and Maneva, G. and Manganaro, M. and Mannheim, K. and Maraschi, L. and Mariotti, M. and Martínez, M. and Mazin, D. and Menchiari, S. and Mender, S. and Mićanović, S. and Miceli, D. and Miener, T. and Minev, M. and Miranda, J. M. and Mirzoyan, R. and Molina, E. and Moralejo, A. and Morcuende, D. and Moreno, V. and Moretti, E. and Neustroev, V. and Nigro, C. and Nilsson, K. and Nishijima, K. and Noda, K. and Nozaki, S. and Ohtani, Y. and Oka, T. and Otero-Santos, J. and Paiano, S. and Palatiello, M. and Paneque, D. and Paoletti, R. and Paredes, J. M. and Pavletić, L. and Peñil, P. and Perennes, C. and Persic, M. and Prada Moroni, P. G. and Prandini, E. and Priyadarshi, C. and Puljak, I. and Rhode, W. and Ribó, M. and Rico, J. and Righi, C. and Rugliancich, A. and Saha, L. and Sahakyan, N. and Saito, T. and Sakurai, S. and Satalecka, K. and Saturni, F. G. and Schleicher, B. and Schmidt, K. and Schweizer, T. and Sitarek, J. and Šnidarić, I. and Sobczynska, D. and Spolon, A. and Stamerra, A. and Strom, D. and Strzys, M. and Suda, Y. and Surić, T. and Takahashi, M. and Tavecchio, F. and Temnikov, P. and Terzić, T. and Teshima, M. and Tosti, L. and Truzzi, S. and Tutone, A. and Ubach, S. and van Scherpenberg, J. and Vanzo, G. and Vazquez Acosta, M. and Ventura, S. and Verguilov, V. and Vigorito, C. F. and Vitale, V. and Vovk, I. and Will, M. and Wunderlich, C. and Zarić, D. and de Palma, F. and D’Ammando, F. and Barnacka, A. and Sahu, D. K. and Hodges, M. and Hovatta, T. and Kiehlmann, S. and Max-Moerbeck, W. and Readhead, A. C. S. and Reeves, R. and Pearson, T. J. and Lähteenmäki, A. and Björklund, I. and Tornikoski, M. and Tammi, J. and Suutarinen, S. and Hada, K. and Niinuma, K. (2022) Multiwavelength study of the gravitationally lensed blazar QSO B0218+357 between 2016 and 2020. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 510 (2). pp. 2344-2362. ISSN 0035-8711. doi:10.1093/mnras/stab3454.

[img] PDF - Published Version
Creative Commons Attribution.

[img] PDF - Accepted Version
See Usage Policy.


Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


We report multiwavelength observations of the gravitationally lensed blazar QSO B0218+357 in 2016–2020. Optical, X-ray, and GeV flares were detected. The contemporaneous MAGIC observations do not show significant very high energy (VHE; ≳100 GeV) gamma-ray emission. The lack of enhancement in radio emission measured by The Owens Valley Radio Observatory indicates the multizone nature of the emission from this object. We constrain the VHE duty cycle of the source to be <16 2014-like flares per year (95 per cent confidence). For the first time for this source, a broad-band low-state spectral energy distribution is constructed with a deep exposure up to the VHE range. A flux upper limit on the low-state VHE gamma-ray emission of an order of magnitude below that of the 2014 flare is determined. The X-ray data are used to fit the column density of (8.10 ± 0.93_(stat)) × 10²¹ cm⁻² of the dust in the lensing galaxy. VLBI observations show a clear radio core and jet components in both lensed images, yet no significant movement of the components is seen. The radio measurements are used to model the source-lens-observer geometry and determine the magnifications and time delays for both components. The quiescent emission is modelled with the high-energy bump explained as a combination of synchrotron-self-Compton and external Compton emission from a region located outside of the broad-line region. The bulk of the low-energy emission is explained as originating from a tens-of-parsecs scale jet.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper ItemData from MAGIC Telescope
Lamastra, A.0000-0003-2403-913X
Sitarek, J.0000-0002-1659-5374
Readhead, A. C. S.0000-0001-9152-961X
Pearson, T. J.0000-0001-5213-6231
Alternate Title:MWL study of QSO B0218+357
Additional Information:© 2021 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Accepted 2021 November 24. Received 2021 October 26; in original form 2021 July 29. We would like to thank the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias for the excellent working conditions at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma. The financial support of the German BMBF, MPG, and HGF; the Italian INFN and INAF; the Swiss National Fund SNF; the ERDF under the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN) (FPA2017-87859-P, FPA2017-85668-P, FPA2017-82729-C6-5-R, FPA2017-90566-REDC, PID2019-104114RB-C31, PID2019-104114RB-C32, PID2019-105510GB-C31, PID2019-107847RB-C41, PID2019-107847RB-C42, PID2019-107988GB-C22); the Indian Department of Atomic Energy; the Japanese ICRR, the University of Tokyo, JSPS, and MEXT; the Bulgarian Ministry of Education and Science, National RI Roadmap Project DO1-268/16.12.2019 and the Academy of Finland grant nr. 320045 is gratefully acknowledged. This work was also supported by the Spanish Centro de Excelencia ‘Severo Ochoa’ SEV-2016-0588 and CEX2019-000920-S, and ‘María de Maeztu’ CEX2019-000918-M, the Unidad de Excelencia ‘María de Maeztu’ MDM-2015-0509-18-2 and the ‘la Caixa’ Foundation (fellowship LCF/BQ/PI18/11630012) and by the CERCA program of the Generalitat de Catalunya; by the Croatian Science Foundation (HrZZ) Project IP-2016-06-9782 and the University of Rijeka Project uniri-prirod-18-48; by the DFG Collaborative Research Centers SFB823/C4 and SFB876/C3; the Polish National Research Centre grant UMO-2016/22/M/ST9/00382; and by the Brazilian MCTIC, CNPq, and FAPERJ. The Fermi LAT Collaboration acknowledges generous ongoing support from a number of agencies and institutes that have supported both the development and the operation of the LAT as well as scientific data analysis. These include the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Department of Energy in the United States, the Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique / Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules in France, the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare in Italy, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) in Japan, and the K. A. Wallenberg Foundation, the Swedish Research Council and the Swedish National Space Board in Sweden. Additional support for science analysis during the operations phase is gratefully acknowledged from the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica in Italy and the Centre National d’Études Spatiales in France. This work performed in part under DOE Contract DE-AC02-76SF00515. We thank Director of Indian Institute of Astrophysics for allotting us observing time with HCT under DDT. We also thank the staff of IAO, Hanle and CREST, Hosakote, that made HCT observations possible. The facilities at IAO and CREST are operated by the Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore. The Joan Oró Telescope (TJO) of the Montsec Astronomical Observatory (OAdM) is owned by the Catalan Government and operated by the Institute for Space Studies of Catalonia (IEEC). This research has made use of data from the OVRO 40-m monitoring program which was supported in part by NASA grants NNX08AW31G, NNX11A043G, and NNX14AQ89G, and NSF grants AST-0808050 and AST-1109911, and private funding from Caltech and the MPIfR. SK acknowledges support from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Unions Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No. 771282. This research has made use of the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED), which is funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and operated by the California Institute of Technology. This publication makes use of data obtained at the Metsähovi Radio Observatory, operated by Aalto University in Finland. Part of this work is based on archival data, software or online services provided by the Space Science Data Center - ASI. We would like to thank the anonymous journal reviewer for his/her comments that helped to improve the manuscript. DATA AVAILABILITY. The data used in this article were accessed from the MAGIC telescope The derived data generated in this research will be shared on reasonable request to the corresponding author.
Group:Astronomy Department, Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF)UNSPECIFIED
Max Planck SocietyUNSPECIFIED
Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren (HGF)UNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)UNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF)UNSPECIFIED
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)FPA2017-87859-P
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)FPA2017-85668-P
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)FPA2017-82729-C6-5-R
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)FPA2017-90566-REDC
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)PID2019-104114RB-C31
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)PID2019-104114RB-C32
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)PID2019-105510GB-C31
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)PID2019-107847RB-C41
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)PID2019-107847RB-C42
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)PID2019-107988GB-C22
Department of Atomic Energy (India)UNSPECIFIED
European Regional Development FundUNSPECIFIED
University of TokyoUNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education and Science (Bulgaria)DO1-268/16.12.2019
Academy of Finland320045
Centro de Excelencia Severo OchoaSEV-2016-0588
Centro de Excelencia Severo OchoaCEX2019-000920-S
Centro de Excelencia Severo OchoaCEX2019-000918-M
Centro de Excelencia Severo OchoaMDM-2015-0509-18-2
La Caixa FoundationLCF/BQ/PI18/11630012
Generalitat de CatalunyaUNSPECIFIED
Croatian Science FoundationIP-2016-06-9782
University of Rijekauniri-prirod-18-48
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)SFB823/C4
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)SFB876/C3
National Science Centre (Poland)UMO-2016/22/M/ST9/00382
Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e InovaçõesUNSPECIFIED
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)UNSPECIFIED
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ)UNSPECIFIED
Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules (IN2P3)UNSPECIFIED
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI)UNSPECIFIED
High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK)UNSPECIFIED
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)UNSPECIFIED
Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Swedish Research CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Swedish National Space Board (SNSB)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC02-76SF00515
Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy (MPIfR)UNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)771282
Subject Keywords:gravitational lensing: strong, radiation mechanisms: non-thermal, galaxies: jets, quasars: individual: QSO B0218+357, gamma-rays: galaxies
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220309-966091000
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:V A Acciari, S Ansoldi, L A Antonelli, A Arbet Engels, M Artero, K Asano, D Baack, A Babić, A Baquero, U Barres de Almeida, J A Barrio, I Batković, J Becerra González, W Bednarek, L Bellizzi, E Bernardini, M Bernardos, A Berti, J Besenrieder, W Bhattacharyya, C Bigongiari, A Biland, O Blanch, G Bonnoli, Ž Bošnjak, G Busetto, R Carosi, G Ceribella, M Cerruti, Y Chai, A Chilingarian, S Cikota, S M Colak, E Colombo, J L Contreras, J Cortina, S Covino, G D’Amico, V D’Elia, P Da Vela, F Dazzi, A De Angelis, B De Lotto, M Delfino, J Delgado, C Delgado Mendez, D Depaoli, F Di Pierro, L Di Venere, E Do Souto Espiñeira, D Dominis Prester, A Donini, D Dorner, M Doro, D Elsaesser, V Fallah Ramazani, A Fattorini, G Ferrara, M V Fonseca, L Font, C Fruck, S Fukami, R J García López, M Garczarczyk, S Gasparyan, M Gaug, N Giglietto, F Giordano, P Gliwny, N Godinović, J G Green, D Green, D Hadasch, A Hahn, L Heckmann, J Herrera, J Hoang, D Hrupec, M Hütten, T Inada, S Inoue, K Ishio, Y Iwamura, I Jiménez, J Jormanainen, L Jouvin, Y Kajiwara, M Karjalainen, D Kerszberg, Y Kobayashi, H Kubo, J Kushida, A Lamastra, D Lelas, F Leone, E Lindfors, S Lombardi, F Longo, R López-Coto, M López-Moya, A López-Oramas, S Loporchio, B Machado de Oliveira Fraga, C Maggio, P Majumdar, M Makariev, M Mallamaci, G Maneva, M Manganaro, K Mannheim, L Maraschi, M Mariotti, M Martínez, D Mazin, S Menchiari, S Mender, S Mićanović, D Miceli, T Miener, M Minev, J M Miranda, R Mirzoyan, E Molina, A Moralejo, D Morcuende, V Moreno, E Moretti, V Neustroev, C Nigro, K Nilsson, K Nishijima, K Noda, S Nozaki, Y Ohtani, T Oka, J Otero-Santos, S Paiano, M Palatiello, D Paneque, R Paoletti, J M Paredes, L Pavletić, P Peñil, C Perennes, M Persic, P G Prada Moroni, E Prandini, C Priyadarshi, I Puljak, W Rhode, M Ribó, J Rico, C Righi, A Rugliancich, L Saha, N Sahakyan, T Saito, S Sakurai, K Satalecka, F G Saturni, B Schleicher, K Schmidt, T Schweizer, J Sitarek, I Šnidarić, D Sobczynska, A Spolon, A Stamerra, D Strom, M Strzys, Y Suda, T Surić, M Takahashi, F Tavecchio, P Temnikov, T Terzić, M Teshima, L Tosti, S Truzzi, A Tutone, S Ubach, J van Scherpenberg, G Vanzo, M Vazquez Acosta, S Ventura, V Verguilov, C F Vigorito, V Vitale, I Vovk, M Will, C Wunderlich, D Zarić, F de Palma, F D’Ammando, A Barnacka, D K Sahu, M Hodges, T Hovatta, S Kiehlmann, W Max-Moerbeck, A C S Readhead, R Reeves, T J Pearson, A Lähteenmäki, I Björklund, M Tornikoski, J Tammi, S Suutarinen, K Hada, K Niinuma, Multiwavelength study of the gravitationally lensed blazar QSO B0218+357 between 2016 and 2020, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 510, Issue 2, February 2022, Pages 2344–2362,
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:113844
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:10 Mar 2022 23:12
Last Modified:10 Mar 2022 23:12

Repository Staff Only: item control page