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Investigating the Blazar TXS 0506+056 through Sharp Multiwavelength Eyes During 2017–2019

Acciari, V. A. and Aniello, T. and Ansoldi, S. and Antonelli, L. A. and Arbet Engels, A. and Artero, M. and Asano, K. and Baack, D. and Babić, A. and Baquero, A. and Barres de Almeida, U. and Barrio, J. A. and Batković, I. and Becerra González, J. and Bednarek, W. and Bernardini, E. and Bernardos, M. and Berti, A. and Besenrieder, J. and Bhattacharyya, W. and Bigongiari, C. and Biland, A. and Blanch, O. and Bökenkamp, H. and Bonnoli, G. and Bošnjak, Ž. and Busetto, G. and Carosi, R. and Ceribella, G. and Cerruti, M. and Chai, Y. and Chilingarian, A. and Cikota, S. and Colombo, E. and Contreras, J. L. and Cortina, J. and Covino, S. and D’Amico, G. and D’Elia, V. and Da Vela, P. and Dazzi, F. and De Angelis, A. and De Lotto, B. and Del Popolo, A. and Delfino, M. and Delgado, J. and Delgado Mendez, C. and Depaoli, D. and Di Pierro, F. and Di Venere, L. and Do Souto Espiñeira, E. and Dominis Prester, D. and Donini, A. and Dorner, D. and Doro, M. and Elsaesser, D. and Fallah Ramazani, V. and Fariña, L. and Fattorini, A. and Font, L. and Fruck, C. and Fukami, S. and Fukazawa, Y. and García López, R. J. and Garczarczyk, M. and Gasparyan, S. and Gaug, M. and Giglietto, N. and Giordano, F. and Gliwny, P. and Godinović, N. and Green, J. G. and Green, D. and Hadasch, D. and Hahn, A. and Hassan, T. and Heckmann, L. and Herrera, J. and Hoang, J. and Hrupec, D. and Hütten, M. and Inada, T. and Iotov, R. and Ishio, K. and Iwamura, Y. and Jiménez Martínez, I. and Jormanainen, J. and Jouvin, L. and Kerszberg, D. and Kobayashi, Y. and Kubo, H. and Kushida, J. and Lamastra, A. and Lelas, D. and Leone, F. and Lindfors, E. and Linhoff, L. and Lombardi, S. and Longo, F. and López-Coto, R. and López-Moya, M. and López-Oramas, A. and Loporchio, S. and Machado de Oliveira Fraga, B. and Maggio, C. and Majumdar, P. and Makariev, M. and Mallamaci, M. and Maneva, G. and Manganaro, M. and Mannheim, K. and Mariotti, M. and Martínez, M. and Mas Aguilar, A. and Mazin, D. and Menchiari, S. and Mender, S. and Mićanović, S. and Miceli, D. and Miener, T. and Miranda, J. M. and Mirzoyan, R. and Molina, E. and Moralejo, A. and Morcuende, D. and Moreno, V. and Moretti, E. and Nakamori, T. and Nava, L. and Neustroev, V. and Nievas Rosillo, M. and Nigro, C. and Nilsson, K. and Nishijima, K. and Noda, K. and Nozaki, S. and Ohtani, Y. and Oka, T. and Otero-Santos, J. and Paiano, S. and Palatiello, M. and Paneque, D. and Paoletti, R. and Paredes, J. M. and Pavletić, L. and Peñil, P. and Persic, M. and Pihet, M. and Prada Moroni, P. G. and Prandini, E. and Priyadarshi, C. and Puljak, I. and Rhode, W. and Ribó, M. and Rico, J. and Righi, C. and Rugliancich, A. and Sahakyan, N. and Saito, T. and Sakurai, S. and Satalecka, K. and Saturni, F. G. and Schleicher, B. and Schmidt, K. and Schmuckermaier, F. and Schweizer, T. and Sitarek, J. and Šnidarić, I. and Sobczynska, D. and Spolon, A. and Stamerra, A. and Strišković, J. and Strom, D. and Strzys, M. and Suda, Y. and Surić, T. and Takahashi, M. and Takeishi, R. and Tavecchio, F. and Temnikov, P. and Terzić, T. and Teshima, M. and Tosti, L. and Truzzi, S. and Tutone, A. and Ubach, S. and van Scherpenberg, J. and Vanzo, G. and Vazquez Acosta, M. and Ventura, S. and Verguilov, V. and Viale, I. and Vigorito, C. F. and Vitale, V. and Vovk, I. and Will, M. and Wunderlich, C. and Yamamoto, T. and Zarić, D. and Hodges, M. and Hovatta, T. and Kiehlmann, S. and Liodakis, I. and Max-Moerbeck, W. and Pearson, T. J. and Readhead, A. C. S. and Reeves, R. A. and Lähteenmäki, A. and Tornikoski, M. and Tammi, J. and D’Ammando, F. and Marchini, A. (2022) Investigating the Blazar TXS 0506+056 through Sharp Multiwavelength Eyes During 2017–2019. Astrophysical Journal, 927 (2). Art. No. 197. ISSN 0004-637X. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac531d.

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The blazar TXS 0506+056 got into the spotlight of the astrophysical community in 2017 September, when a high-energy neutrino detected by IceCube (IceCube-170922A) was associated at the 3σ level with a γ-ray flare from this source. This multi-messenger photon-neutrino association remains, as per today, the most significant association ever observed. TXS 0506+056 was a poorly studied object before the IceCube-170922A event. To better characterize its broadband emission, we organized a multiwavelength campaign lasting 16 months (2017 November to 2019 February), covering the radio band (Metsähovi, OVRO), the optical/UV (ASAS-SN, KVA, REM, Swift/UVOT), the X-rays (Swift/XRT, NuSTAR), the high-energy γ rays (Fermi/LAT), and the very high-energy (VHE) γ rays (MAGIC). In γ rays, the behavior of the source was significantly different from the behavior in 2017: MAGIC observations show the presence of flaring activity during 2018 December, while the source only shows an excess at the 4σ level during the rest of the campaign (74 hr of accumulated exposure); Fermi/LAT observations show several short (on a timescale of days to a week) flares, different from the long-term brightening of 2017. No significant flares are detected at lower energies. The radio light curve shows an increasing flux trend that is not seen in other wavelengths. We model the multiwavelength spectral energy distributions in a lepto-hadronic scenario, in which the hadronic emission emerges as Bethe-Heitler and pion-decay cascade in the X-rays and VHE γ rays. According to the model presented here, the 2018 December γ-ray flare was connected to a neutrino emission that was too brief and not bright enough to be detected by current neutrino instruments.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Acciari, V. A.0000-0001-8307-2007
Ansoldi, S.0000-0002-5613-7693
Antonelli, L. A.0000-0002-5037-9034
Arbet Engels, A.0000-0001-9076-9582
Artero, M.0000-0002-4899-8127
Asano, K.0000-0001-9064-160X
Baack, D.0000-0002-2311-4460
Babić, A.0000-0002-1444-5604
Baquero, A.0000-0002-1757-5826
Barres de Almeida, U.0000-0001-7909-588X
Barrio, J. A.0000-0002-0965-0259
Batković, I.0000-0002-1209-2542
Becerra González, J.0000-0002-6729-9022
Bednarek, W.0000-0003-0605-108X
Bernardini, E.0000-0003-3108-1141
Berti, A.0000-0003-0396-4190
Bhattacharyya, W.0000-0003-4751-0414
Bigongiari, C.0000-0003-3293-8522
Biland, A.0000-0002-1288-833X
Blanch, O.0000-0002-8380-1633
Bökenkamp, H.0000-0003-2464-9077
Bonnoli, G.0000-0003-2464-9077
Bošnjak, Ž.0000-0001-6536-0320
Busetto, G.0000-0002-2687-6380
Carosi, R.0000-0002-4137-4370
Ceribella, G.0000-0002-9768-2751
Cerruti, M.0000-0001-7891-699X
Chai, Y.0000-0003-2816-2821
Chilingarian, A.0000-0002-2018-9715
Colombo, E.0000-0002-3700-3745
Contreras, J. L.0000-0001-7282-2394
Cortina, J.0000-0003-4576-0452
Covino, S.0000-0001-9078-5507
D’Amico, G.0000-0001-6472-8381
D’Elia, V.0000-0002-7320-5862
Da Vela, P.0000-0003-0604-4517
Dazzi, F.0000-0001-5409-6544
De Angelis, A.0000-0002-3288-2517
De Lotto, B.0000-0003-3624-4480
Del Popolo, A.0000-0002-9057-0239
Delfino, M.0000-0002-9468-4751
Delgado, J.0000-0002-0166-5464
Delgado Mendez, C.0000-0002-7014-4101
Depaoli, D.0000-0002-2672-4141
Di Pierro, F.0000-0003-4861-432X
Di Venere, L.0000-0003-0703-824X
Do Souto Espiñeira, E.0000-0001-6974-2676
Dominis Prester, D.0000-0002-9880-5039
Donini, A.0000-0002-3066-724X
Dorner, D.0000-0001-8823-479X
Doro, M.0000-0001-9104-3214
Elsaesser, D.0000-0001-6796-3205
Fallah Ramazani, V.0000-0001-8991-7744
Fariña, L.0000-0003-4116-6157
Fattorini, A.0000-0002-1056-9167
Font, L.0000-0003-2109-5961
Fruck, C.0000-0001-5880-7518
Fukami, S.0000-0003-4025-7794
Fukazawa, Y.0000-0002-0921-8837
García López, R. J.0000-0002-2144-0991
Garczarczyk, M.0000-0002-0445-4566
Gaug, M.0000-0001-8442-7877
Giglietto, N.0000-0002-9021-2888
Giordano, F.0000-0002-8651-2394
Gliwny, P.0000-0002-4183-391X
Godinović, N.0000-0002-4674-9450
Green, J. G.0000-0002-1130-6692
Green, D.0000-0003-0768-2203
Hadasch, D.0000-0001-8663-6461
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Herrera, J.0000-0002-3771-4918
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Kushida, J.0000-0002-8002-8585
Lamastra, A.0000-0003-2403-913X
Lelas, D.0000-0002-8269-5760
Leone, F.0000-0001-7626-3788
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Mazin, D.0000-0002-2010-4005
Mender, S.0000-0002-0755-0609
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Miceli, D.0000-0002-2686-0098
Miener, T.0000-0003-1821-7964
Miranda, J. M.0000-0002-1472-9690
Mirzoyan, R.0000-0003-0163-7233
Molina, E.0000-0003-1204-5516
Moralejo, A.0000-0002-1344-9080
Morcuende, D.0000-0001-9400-0922
Moreno, V.0000-0002-8358-2098
Moretti, E.0000-0001-5477-9097
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Nava, L.0000-0001-5960-0455
Neustroev, V.0000-0003-4772-595X
Nievas Rosillo, M.0000-0002-8321-9168
Nigro, C.0000-0001-8375-1907
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Vovk, I.0000-0003-3444-3830
Will, M.0000-0002-7504-2083
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Yamamoto, T.0000-0001-9734-8203
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Kiehlmann, S.0000-0001-6314-9177
Liodakis, I.0000-0001-9200-4006
Max-Moerbeck, W.0000-0002-5491-5244
Pearson, T. J.0000-0001-5213-6231
Readhead, A. C. S.0000-0001-9152-961X
Reeves, R. A.0000-0001-5704-271X
Lähteenmäki, A.0000-0002-0393-0647
Tornikoski, M.0000-0003-1249-6026
Tammi, J.0000-0002-9164-2695
D’Ammando, F.0000-0001-7618-7527
Marchini, A.0000-0003-3779-6762
Alternate Title:Investigating the blazar TXS 0506+056 through sharp multi-wavelength eyes during 2017-2019
Additional Information:© 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2021 November 12; revised 2022 January 19; accepted 2022 February 5; published 2022 March 17. We would like to thank the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias for the excellent working conditions at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma. The financial support of the German BMBF, MPG, and HGF; the Italian INFN and INAF; the Swiss National Fund SNF; the ERDF under the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN) (PID2019-104114RB-C31, PID2019-104114RB-C32, PID2019-104114RB-C33, PID2019-105510GB-C31,PID2019-107847RB-C41, PID2019-107847RB-C42, PID2019-107847RB-C44, PID2019-107988GB-C22); the Indian Department of Atomic Energy; the Japanese ICRR, the University of Tokyo, JSPS, and MEXT; the Bulgarian Ministry of Education and Science, National RI Roadmap Project DO1-400/18.12.2020 and the Academy of Finland grant nr. 320045 is gratefully acknowledged. This work was also supported by the Spanish Centro de Excelencia "Severo Ochoa" (SEV-2016-0588, SEV-2017-0709, CEX2019-000920-S), the Unidad de Excelencia "María de Maeztu" (CEX2019-000918-M, MDM-2015-0509-18-2) and by the CERCA program of the Generalitat de Catalunya; by the Croatian Science Foundation (HrZZ) Project IP-2016-06-9782 and the University of Rijeka Project; by the DFG Collaborative Research Centers SFB823/C4 and SFB876/C3; the Polish National Research Centre grant UMO-2016/22/M/ST9/00382; and by the Brazilian MCTIC, CNPq and FAPERJ. E.P. acknowledges funding from the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) through the "Dipartimenti di eccellenza" project Science of the universe. M.C. has received financial support through the Postdoctoral Junior Leader Fellowship Programme from la Caixa Banking Foundation, grant No. LCF/BQ/LI18/11630012. This research has made use of data from the OVRO 40 m monitoring program, which was supported in part by NASA grants NNX08AW31G, NNX11A043G, and NNX14AQ89G, and NSF grants AST-0808050 and AST-1109911, and private funding from Caltech and the MPIfR. This publication makes use of data obtained at Metsähovi Radio Observatory, operated by Aalto University in Finland. The authors would like to thank the anonymous referee for their comments that improved the present manuscript. Facilities: MAGIC - Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov Telescope, Fermi/LAT - , NuSTAR - , Swift - , KVA - , REM - , ASAS-SN - , Metsähovi - , OVRO -
Group:Astronomy Department, Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF)UNSPECIFIED
Max Planck SocietyUNSPECIFIED
Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren (HGF)UNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)UNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF)UNSPECIFIED
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)UNSPECIFIED
Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN)PID2019-104114RB-C31
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN)PID2019-104114RB-C32
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN)PID2019-104114RB-C33
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN)PID2019-105510GB-C31
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN)PID2019-107847RB-C41
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN)PID2019-107847RB-C42
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN)PID2019-107847RB-C44
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN)PID2019-107988GB-C22
Department of Atomic Energy (India)UNSPECIFIED
Institute for Cosmic Ray ResearchUNSPECIFIED
University of TokyoUNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education and Science (Bulgaria)UNSPECIFIED
Academy of FinlandDO1-400/18.12.2020
Academy of Finland320045
Centro de Excelencia Severo OchoaSEV-2016-0588
Centro de Excelencia Severo OchoaSEV-2017-0709
Centro de Excelencia Severo OchoaCEX2019-000920-S
Centro de Excelencia Severo OchoaCEX2019-000918-M
Centro de Excelencia Severo OchoaMDM-2015-0509-18-2
Generalitat de CatalunyaUNSPECIFIED
Croatian Science FoundationIP-2016-06-9782
University of Rijeka13.
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)SFB823/C4
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)SFB876/C3
National Science Centre (Poland)UMO-2016/22/M/ST9/00382
Ministério da Ciência, Tecnolgia, Inovação e ComunicaçõesUNSPECIFIED
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)UNSPECIFIED
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ)UNSPECIFIED
Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca (MIUR)UNSPECIFIED
La Caixa FoundationLCF/BQ/LI18/11630012
Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy (MPIfR)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:High energy astrophysics; Jets; Blazars; Gamma-rays
Issue or Number:2
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: High energy astrophysics (739); Jets (870); Blazars (164); Gamma-rays (637)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220317-376467000
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:V. A. Acciari et al 2022 ApJ 927 197
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:113949
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:18 Mar 2022 17:25
Last Modified:18 Mar 2022 17:25

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