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Transit timings variations in the three-planet system: TOI-270

Kaye, Laurel and Vissapragada, Shreyas and Günther, Maximilian N. and Aigrain, Suzanne and Mikal-Evans, Thomas and Jensen, Eric L. N. and Parviainen, Hannu and Pozuelos, Francisco J. and Abe, Lyu and Acton, Jack S. and Agabi, Abdelkrim and Alves, Douglas R. and Anderson, David R. and Armstrong, David J. and Barkaoui, Khalid and Barragán, Oscar and Benneke, Björn and Boyd, Patricia T. and Brahm, Rafael and Bruni, Ivan and Bryant, Edward M. and Burleigh, Matthew R. and Casewell, Sarah L. and Ciardi, David R. and Cloutier, Ryan and Collins, Karen A. and Collins, Kevin I. and Conti, Dennis M. and Crossfield, Ian J. M. and Crouzet, Nicolas and Daylan, Tansu and Dragomir, Diana and Dransfield, Georgina and Fabrycky, Daniel and Fausnaugh, Michael and Fuűrész, Gábor and Gan, Tianjun and Gill, Samuel and Gillon, Michaël and Goad, Michael R. and Gorjian, Varoujan and Greklek-McKeon, Michael and Guerrero, Natalia and Guillot, Tristan and Jehin, Emmanuël and Jenkins, J. S. and Lendl, Monika and Kamler, Jacob and Kane, Stephen R. and Kielkopf, John F. and Kunimoto, Michelle and Marie-Sainte, Wenceslas and McCormac, James and Mékarnia, Djamel and Morales, Farisa Y. and Moyano, Maximiliano and Palle, Enric and Parmentier, Vivien and Relles, Howard M. and Schmider, François-Xavier and Schwarz, Richard P. and Seager, S. and Smith, Alexis M. S. and Tan, Thiam-Guan and Taylor, Jake and Triaud, Amaury H. M. J. and Twicken, Joseph D. and Udry, Stephane and Vines, J. I. and Wang, Gavin and Wheatley, Peter J. and Winn, Joshua N. (2022) Transit timings variations in the three-planet system: TOI-270. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 510 (4). pp. 5464-5485. ISSN 0035-8711. doi:10.1093/mnras/stab3483. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20220329-346176737

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Abstract

We present ground- and space-based photometric observations of TOI-270 (L231-32), a system of three transiting planets consisting of one super-Earth and two sub-Neptunes discovered by TESS around a bright (K-mag = 8.25) M3V dwarf. The planets orbit near low-order mean-motion resonances (5:3 and 2:1) and are thus expected to exhibit large transit timing variations (TTVs). Following an extensive observing campaign using eight different observatories between 2018 and 2020, we now report a clear detection of TTVs for planets c and d, with amplitudes of ∼10 min and a super-period of ∼3 yr, as well as significantly refined estimates of the radii and mean orbital periods of all three planets. Dynamical modelling of the TTVs alone puts strong constraints on the mass ratio of planets c and d and on their eccentricities. When incorporating recently published constraints from radial velocity observations, we obtain masses of M_b = 1.48 ± 0.18 M_⊕, M_c = 6.20 ± 0.31 M_⊕, and M_d = 4.20 ± 0.16 M_⊕ for planets b, c, and d, respectively. We also detect small but significant eccentricities for all three planets : eb = 0.0167 ± 0.0084, ec = 0.0044 ± 0.0006, and ed = 0.0066 ± 0.0020. Our findings imply an Earth-like rocky composition for the inner planet, and Earth-like cores with an additional He/H2O atmosphere for the outer two. TOI-270 is now one of the best constrained systems of small transiting planets, and it remains an excellent target for atmospheric characterization.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stab3483DOIArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Kaye, Laurel0000-0002-4311-9250
Vissapragada, Shreyas0000-0003-2527-1475
Günther, Maximilian N.0000-0002-3164-9086
Aigrain, Suzanne0000-0003-1453-0574
Mikal-Evans, Thomas0000-0001-5442-1300
Jensen, Eric L. N.0000-0002-4625-7333
Parviainen, Hannu0000-0001-5519-1391
Pozuelos, Francisco J.0000-0003-1572-7707
Abe, Lyu0000-0002-0856-4527
Acton, Jack S.0000-0002-1860-7842
Alves, Douglas R.0000-0002-5619-2502
Anderson, David R.0000-0001-7416-7522
Armstrong, David J.0000-0002-5080-4117
Barkaoui, Khalid0000-0003-1464-9276
Barragán, Oscar0000-0003-0563-0493
Benneke, Björn0000-0001-5578-1498
Boyd, Patricia T.0000-0003-0442-4284
Brahm, Rafael0000-0002-9158-7315
Bruni, Ivan0000-0002-1560-4590
Bryant, Edward M.0000-0001-7904-4441
Burleigh, Matthew R.0000-0003-0684-7803
Casewell, Sarah L.0000-0003-2478-0120
Ciardi, David R.0000-0002-5741-3047
Cloutier, Ryan0000-0001-5383-9393
Collins, Karen A.0000-0001-6588-9574
Collins, Kevin I.0000-0003-2781-3207
Conti, Dennis M.0000-0003-2239-0567
Crossfield, Ian J. M.0000-0002-1835-1891
Crouzet, Nicolas0000-0001-7866-8738
Daylan, Tansu0000-0002-6939-9211
Dragomir, Diana0000-0003-2313-467X
Dransfield, Georgina0000-0002-3937-630X
Fabrycky, Daniel0000-0003-3750-0183
Fausnaugh, Michael0000-0002-9113-7162
Gan, Tianjun0000-0002-4503-9705
Gill, Samuel0000-0002-4259-0155
Gillon, Michaël0000-0003-1462-7739
Goad, Michael R.0000-0002-2908-7360
Gorjian, Varoujan0000-0002-8990-2101
Greklek-McKeon, Michael0000-0002-0371-1647
Guerrero, Natalia0000-0002-5169-9427
Guillot, Tristan0000-0002-7188-8428
Jehin, Emmanuël0000-0001-8923-488X
Jenkins, J. S.0000-0003-2733-8725
Lendl, Monika0000-0001-9699-1459
Kane, Stephen R.0000-0002-7084-0529
Kielkopf, John F.0000-0003-0497-2651
Kunimoto, Michelle0000-0001-9269-8060
McCormac, James0000-0003-1631-4170
Mékarnia, Djamel0000-0001-5000-7292
Morales, Farisa Y.0000-0001-9414-3851
Moyano, Maximiliano0000-0002-7927-9555
Palle, Enric0000-0003-0987-1593
Parmentier, Vivien0000-0001-9521-6258
Schmider, François-Xavier0000-0003-3914-3546
Schwarz, Richard P.0000-0001-8227-1020
Seager, S.0000-0002-6892-6948
Smith, Alexis M. S.0000-0002-2386-4341
Tan, Thiam-Guan0000-0001-5603-6895
Taylor, Jake0000-0003-4844-9838
Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.0000-0002-5510-8751
Twicken, Joseph D.0000-0002-6778-7552
Udry, Stephane0000-0001-7576-6236
Vines, J. I.0000-0002-1896-2377
Wang, Gavin0000-0003-3092-4418
Wheatley, Peter J.0000-0003-1452-2240
Winn, Joshua N.0000-0002-4265-047X
Additional Information:© 2021 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model) Accepted 2021 No v ember 23. Received 2021 November 22; in original form 2021 March 30. This research received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement no. 803193/BEBOP) and from the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC; grant no. ST/S00193X/1). LK acknowledges funding support from the Clarendon Scholarship. SV is supported by an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship and the Paul & Daisy Soros Fellowship for New Americans, and additionally thanks Heather Knutson for helpful comments on the dynamical analysis. MNG acknowledges support from MIT’s Kavli Institute as a Juan Carlos Torres Fellow. TD acknowledges support from MIT’s Kavli Institute as a Kavli Fellow. DD acknowledges support from the tess Guest Investigator Program grant 80NSSC19K1727 and NASA Exoplanet Research Program grant 18-2XRP182-0136. JSJ acknowledges support by FONDECYT grant 1201371, and partial support from CONICYT project Basal AFB-170002. JIV acknowledges support of CONICYT-PFCHA/Doctorado Nacional-21191829. ACh acknowledges the support of the DFG priority program SPP 1992 ‘Exploring the Diversity of Extrasolar Planets’ (RA 714/13-1), DJA acknowledges support from the STFC via an Ernest Rutherford Fellowship (ST/R00384X/1) JSJ acknowledges support by FONDECYT grant 1201371, and partial support from CONICYT project Basal AFB-170002. PJW is supported by STFC consolidated grant ST/T000406/1. SG has been supported by STFC through consolidated grants ST/L000733/1 and ST/P000495/1. SLC acknowledges the support of an STFC Ernest Rutherford Fellowship ST/R003726/1. JIV acknowledges support of CONICYT-PFCHA/Doctorado Nacional-21191829. This paper contributes to meeting the TESS Mission Level One Science Requirement: ‘The TESS team shall assure that the masses of fifty (50) planets with radii less than 4 REarth are determined.’ Funding for the TESS mission is provided by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate. We acknowledge the use of public TESS data from pipelines at the TESS Science Office and at the TESS Science Processing Operations Center. This research has made use of the Exoplanet Follow-up Observation Program website, which is operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under the Exoplanet Exploration Program. Resources supporting this work were provided by the NASA High-End Computing (HEC) Program through the NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) Division at Ames Research Center for the production of the SPOC data products. This paper includes data collected by the TESS mission that are publicly available from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). Resources supporting this work were provided by the NASA High-End Computing (HEC) Program through the NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) Division at Ames Research Center for the production of the SPOC data products. This work makes use of observations from the LCOGT network. Part of the LCOGT telescope time was granted by NOIRLab through the Mid-Scale Innovations Program (MSIP). MSIP is funded by NSF. The research leading to these results has received funding from the ARC grant for Concerted Research Actions, financed by the Wallonia-Brussels Federation. TRAPPIST is funded by the Belgian Fund for Scientific Research (Fond National de la Recherche Scientifique, FNRS) under the grant FRFC 2.5.594.09.F, with the participation of the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF). MG and EJ are F.R.S.-FNRS Senior Research Associate. ASTEP benefited from the support of the French and Italian polar agencies IPEV and PNRA in the framework of the Concordia station program. TG, AA, LA, DM, and F-XS acknowledge support from Idex UCAJEDI (ANR-15-IDEX-01). Based on data collected under the NGTS project at the ESO La Silla Paranal Observatory. The NGTS facility is operated by the consortium institutes with support from the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) projects ST/M001962/1 and ST/S002642/1. This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (https://www.cosmos.esa.int/gaia), processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, https://www.cosmos.esa.int/web/gaia/dpac/consortium). Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular, the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. This work has been carried out in the framework of the PlanetS National Centres of Competence in Research (NCCR) supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF). DATA AVAILABILITY. The TESS data used within this study are hosted and made publicly available by the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST, http://archive.stsci.edu/tess/). LCO, NGTS, and PEST observations are through Exoplanet Follow-up Observing Program for TESS (ExoFOP-TESS) website as community TOIs (cTOIs; https://exofop.ipac.caltech.edu/tess/target.php?id = 259377017). The models and analyses of transit timings were conducted using publicly available open software codes, ASTROPY (Astropy Collaboration 2013), AstroImageJ (Collins et al. 2017), BATMAN (Kreidberg 2015), EMCEE (Foreman-Mackey et al. 2013, 2019), GEORGE (Ambikasaran et al. 2014), IDL (Landsman 1993), LDTK (Parviainen & Aigrain 2015), Tapir (Jensen 2013), and TTVFast (Deck et al. 2014) Facilities used: CTIO:1.3 m, CTIO:1.5 m, CXO, Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT), TESS, Spitzer Space Telescope, ASTEP, NGTS, and TRAPPIST.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
European Research Council (ERC)803193
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/S00193X/1
University of OxfordUNSPECIFIED
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Paul and Daisy Soros Fellowships for New AmericansUNSPECIFIED
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)UNSPECIFIED
NASA80NSSC19K1727
NASA18-2XRP182-0136
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)1201371
BASAL-CATAAFB-170002
Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT)21191829
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)RA 714/13-1
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/R00384X/1
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/T000406/1
`Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/L000733/1
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/P000495/1
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/R003726/1
Wallonia-Brussels FederationUNSPECIFIED
Fond National de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS)FRFC 2.5.594.09.F
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)UNSPECIFIED
French Polar Institute - Paul Emile Victor (IPEV)UNSPECIFIED
Programma Nazionale di Ricerche in Antartide (PNRA)UNSPECIFIED
Agence Nationale pour la Recherche (ANR)ANR-15-IDEX-01
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/M001962/1
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/S002642/1
Gaia Multilateral AgreementUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:planets and satellites: composition, planets and satellites: formation, planets and satellites: fundamental parameters
Issue or Number:4
DOI:10.1093/mnras/stab3483
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220329-346176737
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20220329-346176737
Official Citation:Laurel Kaye, Shreyas Vissapragada, Maximilian N Günther, Suzanne Aigrain, Thomas Mikal-Evans, Eric L N Jensen, Hannu Parviainen, Francisco J Pozuelos, Lyu Abe, Jack S Acton, Abdelkrim Agabi, Douglas R Alves, David R Anderson, David J Armstrong, Khalid Barkaoui, Oscar Barragán, Björn Benneke, Patricia T Boyd, Rafael Brahm, Ivan Bruni, Edward M Bryant, Matthew R Burleigh, Sarah L Casewell, David Ciardi, Ryan Cloutier, Karen A Collins, Kevin I Collins, Dennis M Conti, Ian J M Crossfield, Nicolas Crouzet, Tansu Daylan, Diana Dragomir, Georgina Dransfield, Daniel Fabrycky, Michael Fausnaugh, Gábor Fuűrész, Tianjun Gan, Samuel Gill, Michaël Gillon, Michael R Goad, Varoujan Gorjian, Michael Greklek-McKeon, Natalia Guerrero, Tristan Guillot, Emmanuël Jehin, J S Jenkins, Monika Lendl, Jacob Kamler, Stephen R Kane, John F Kielkopf, Michelle Kunimoto, Wenceslas Marie-Sainte, James McCormac, Djamel Mékarnia, Farisa Y Morales, Maximiliano Moyano, Enric Palle, Vivien Parmentier, Howard M Relles, François-Xavier Schmider, Richard P Schwarz, S Seager, Alexis M S Smith, Thiam-Guan Tan, Jake Taylor, Amaury H M J Triaud, Joseph D Twicken, Stephane Udry, J I Vines, Gavin Wang, Peter J Wheatley, Joshua N Winn, Transit timings variations in the three-planet system: TOI-270, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 510, Issue 4, March 2022, Pages 5464–5485, https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stab3483
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:114123
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:29 Mar 2022 12:27
Last Modified:25 Jul 2022 23:14

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  • Transit timings variations in the three-planet system: TOI-270. (deposited 29 Mar 2022 12:27) [Currently Displayed]

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  • Kaye, Laurel and Vissapragada, Shreyas and Günther, Maximilian N. and Aigrain, Suzanne and Mikal-Evans, Thomas and Jensen, Eric L. N. and Parviainen, Hannu and Pozuelos, Francisco J. and Abe, Lyu and Acton, Jack S. and Agabi, Abdelkrim and Alves, Douglas R. and Anderson, David R. and Armstrong, David J. and Barkaoui, Khalid and Barragán, Oscar and Benneke, Björn and Boyd, Patricia T. and Brahm, Rafael and Bruni, Ivan and Bryant, Edward M. and Burleigh, Matthew R. and Casewell, Sarah L. and Ciardi, David R. and Cloutier, Ryan and Collins, Karen A. and Collins, Kevin I. and Conti, Dennis M. and Crossfield, Ian J. M. and Crouzet, Nicolas and Daylan, Tansu and Dragomir, Diana and Dransfield, Georgina and Fabrycky, Daniel and Fausnaugh, Michael and Fuűrész, Gábor and Gan, Tianjun and Gill, Samuel and Gillon, Michaël and Goad, Michael R. and Gorjian, Varoujan and Greklek-McKeon, Michael and Guerrero, Natalia and Guillot, Tristan and Jehin, Emmanuël and Jenkins, J. S. and Lendl, Monika and Kamler, Jacob and Kane, Stephen R. and Kielkopf, John F. and Kunimoto, Michelle and Marie-Sainte, Wenceslas and McCormac, James and Mékarnia, Djamel and Morales, Farisa Y. and Moyano, Maximiliano and Palle, Enric and Parmentier, Vivien and Relles, Howard M. and Schmider, François-Xavier and Schwarz, Richard P. and Seager, S. and Smith, Alexis M. S. and Tan, Thiam-Guan and Taylor, Jake and Triaud, Amaury H. M. J. and Twicken, Joseph D. and Udry, Stephane and Vines, J. I. and Wang, Gavin and Wheatley, Peter J. and Winn, Joshua N. Transit timings variations in the three-planet system: TOI-270. (deposited 29 Mar 2022 12:27) [Currently Displayed]

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