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In situ recording of Mars soundscape

Maurice, S. and Chide, B. and Murdoch, N. and Lorenz, R. D. and Mimoun, D. and Wiens, R. C. and Stott, A. and Jacob, X. and Bertrand, T. and Montmessin, F. and Lanza, N. L. and Alvarez-Llamas, C. and Angel, S. M. and Aung, M. and Balaram, J. and Beyssac, O. and Cousin, A. and Delory, G. and Forni, O. and Fouchet, T. and Gasnault, O. and Grip, H. and Hecht, M. and Hoffman, J. and Laserna, J. and Lasue, J. and Maki, J. and McClean, J. and Meslin, P.-Y. and Le Mouélic, S. and Munguira, A. and Newman, C. E. and Rodríguez Manfredi, J. A. and Moros, J. and Ollila, A. and Pilleri, P. and Schröder, S. and de la Torre Juárez, M. and Tzanetos, T. and Stack, K. M. and Farley, K. and Williford, K. and Wiens, R. C. and Acosta-Maeda, T. and Anderson, R. B. and Applin, D. M. and Arana, G. and Bassas-Portus, M. and Beal, R. and Beck, P. and Benzerara, K. and Bernard, S. and Bernardi, P. and Bosak, T. and Bousquet, B. and Brown, A. and Cadu, A. and Caïs, P. and Castro, K. and Clavé, E. and Clegg, S. M. and Cloutis, E. and Connell, S. and Debus, A. and Dehouck, E. and Delapp, D. and Donny, C. and Dorresoundiram, A. and Dromart, G. and Dubois, B. and Fabre, C. and Fau, A. and Fischer, W. and Francis, R. and Frydenvang, J. and Gabriel, T. and Gibbons, E. and Gontijo, I. and Johnson, J. R. and Kalucha, H. and Kelly, E. and Knutsen, E. W. and Lacombe, G. and Le Mouélic, S. and Legett, C. and Leveille, R. and Lewin, E. and Lopez-Reyes, G. and Lorigny, E. and Madariaga, J. M. and Madsen, M. and Madsen, S. and Mandon, L. and Mangold, N. and Mann, M. and Manrique, J.-A. and Martinez-Frias, J. and Mayhew, L. E. and McConnochie, T. and McLennan, S. M. and Melikechi, N. and Meunier, F. and Montagnac, G. and Mousset, V. and Nelson, T. and Newell, R. T. and Parot, Y. and Pilorget, C. and Pinet, P. and Pont, G. and Poulet, F. and Quantin-Nataf, C. and Quertier, B. and Rapin, W. and Reyes-Newell, A. and Robinson, S. and Rochas, L. and Royer, C. and Rull, F. and Sautter, V. and Sharma, S. and Shridar, V. and Sournac, A. and Toplis, M. and Torre-Fdez, I. and Turenne, N. and Udry, A. and Veneranda, M. and Venhaus, D. and Vogt, D. and Willis, P. (2022) In situ recording of Mars soundscape. Nature, 605 (7911). pp. 653-658. ISSN 0028-0836. PMCID PMC9132769. doi:10.1038/s41586-022-04679-0.

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[img] Image (JPEG) (Extended Data Fig. 1: Artificial sounds recorded by Perseverance) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Image (JPEG) (Extended Data Fig. 2: Recording of laser-induced shock wave) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Image (JPEG) (Extended Data Fig. 3: Recording of the BPF of Ingenuity’s fourth flight) - Supplemental Material
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Image (JPEG) (Extended Data Table 1 List of audio recordings used in this study) - Supplemental Material
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Image (JPEG) (Extended Data Table 2 Origin and characteristics of the dataset used in this study) - Supplemental Material
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Before the Perseverance rover landing, the acoustic environment of Mars was unknown. Models predicted that: (1) atmospheric turbulence changes at centimetre scales or smaller at the point where molecular viscosity converts kinetic energy into heat, (2) the speed of sound varies at the surface with frequency and (3) high-frequency waves are strongly attenuated with distance in CO₂ (refs. 2,3,4). However, theoretical models were uncertain because of a lack of experimental data at low pressure and the difficulty to characterize turbulence or attenuation in a closed environment. Here, using Perseverance microphone recordings, we present the first characterization of the acoustic environment on Mars and pressure fluctuations in the audible range and beyond, from 20 Hz to 50 kHz. We find that atmospheric sounds extend measurements of pressure variations down to 1,000 times smaller scales than ever observed before, showing a dissipative regime extending over five orders of magnitude in energy. Using point sources of sound (Ingenuity rotorcraft, laser-induced sparks), we highlight two distinct values for the speed of sound that are about 10 m s⁻¹ apart below and above 240 Hz, a unique characteristic of low-pressure CO₂-dominated atmosphere. We also provide the acoustic attenuation with distance above 2 kHz, allowing us to explain the large contribution of the CO₂ vibrational relaxation in the audible range. These results establish a ground truth for the modelling of acoustic processes, which is critical for studies in atmospheres such as those of Mars and Venus.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription CentralArticle Correction
Maurice, S.0000-0001-5702-8002
Chide, B.0000-0002-5124-9119
Murdoch, N.0000-0002-9701-4075
Lorenz, R. D.0000-0001-8528-4644
Mimoun, D.0000-0002-3427-2974
Wiens, R. C.0000-0002-3409-7344
Jacob, X.0000-0001-6718-4981
Bertrand, T.0000-0002-2302-9776
Montmessin, F.0000-0002-4187-1457
Lanza, N. L.0000-0003-4445-7996
Alvarez-Llamas, C.0000-0001-7793-7000
Forni, O.0000-0001-6772-9689
Fouchet, T.0000-0001-9040-8285
Gasnault, O.0000-0002-6979-9012
Hecht, M.0000-0002-4114-4583
Lasue, J.0000-0001-9082-4457
Maki, J.0000-0002-7887-0343
Meslin, P.-Y.0000-0002-0703-3951
Le Mouélic, S.0000-0001-5260-1367
Munguira, A.0000-0002-1677-6327
Newman, C. E.0000-0001-9990-8817
Rodríguez Manfredi, J. A.0000-0003-0461-9815
Ollila, A.0000-0003-0479-9465
Pilleri, P.0000-0003-4861-0476
Schröder, S.0000-0003-1870-3663
de la Torre Juárez, M.0000-0003-1393-5297
Stack, K. M.0000-0003-3444-6695
Farley, K.0000-0002-7846-7546
Williford, K.0000-0003-0633-408X
Wiens, R. C.0000-0002-3409-7344
Bosak, T.0000-0001-5179-5323
Clegg, S. M.0000-0002-0338-0948
Cloutis, E.0000-0001-7301-0929
Dehouck, E.0000-0002-1368-4494
Delapp, D.0000-0002-2514-337X
Fischer, W.0000-0002-8836-3054
Additional Information:© The Author(s) 2022. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit Received 07 December 2021; Accepted 23 March 2022; Published 01 April 2022. Many people helped with this project in addition to the co-authors, including hardware and operation teams, and we are most grateful for their support. This project was supported in the USA by NASA’s Mars Exploration Program and in France is conducted under the authority of CNES. The work of A. Munguira is supported by grant PID2019-109467GB-I00 funded by MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033. Data availability: All acoustic data are publicly available at the Planetary Data System Geosciences Node: Contributions: S.M. and B.C. equally led the writing of the manuscript. S.M., B.C., N.M., R.D.L., A.S., X.J., T.B. and F.M. performed data processing and interpreted the data. D.M. is the lead of SuperCam’s microphone, R.C.W. the lead of the SuperCam investigation, and N.L.L. and B.C. the leads of the SuperCam Acoustics Working Group. Other investigations provided data and support to this study: J.M. is the lead of EDL’s microphone; M.A., J.B., H.G. and T.T. are leading the Ingenuity project; M.H., J.H. and J.McClean are leading the MOXIE investigation; J.A.R.M., M.dlT.J. and C.E.N. are leading the MEDA investigation and mission atmospheric working group. All other co-authors provided helpful comments and inputs to the manuscript. The SuperCam team built the instrument, helps daily to operate it and to process and interpret the data. The authors declare no competing interests. Peer review information: Nature thanks Andi Petculescu, Peter Read and Roger Waxler for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
Errata:Maurice, S., Chide, B., Murdoch, N. et al. Author Correction: In situ recording of Mars soundscape. Nature (2022).
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN)PID2019-109467GB-I00
Agencia Estatal de InvestigaciónUNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)10.13039/501100011033
Subject Keywords:Atmospheric dynamics; Characterization and analytical techniques
Issue or Number:7911
PubMed Central ID:PMC9132769
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220413-335750200
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Maurice, S., Chide, B., Murdoch, N. et al. In situ recording of Mars soundscape. Nature 605, 653–658 (2022).
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:114272
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:13 Apr 2022 21:40
Last Modified:25 Jul 2022 18:55

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