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The Candidate Progenitor Companion Star of the Type Ib/c SN 2013ge

Fox, Ori D. and Van Dyk, Schuyler D. and Williams, Benjamin F. and Drout, Maria and Zapartas, Emmanouil and Smith, Nathan and Milisavljevic, Dan and Andrews, Jennifer E. and Bostroem, K. Azalee and Filippenko, Alexei V. and Gomez, Sebastian and Kelly, Patrick L. and de Mink, S. E. and Pierel, Justin and Rest, Armin and Ryder, Stuart and Sravan, Niharika and Strolger, Lou and Wang, Qinan and Weil, Kathryn E. (2022) The Candidate Progenitor Companion Star of the Type Ib/c SN 2013ge. Astrophysical Journal Letters, 929 (1). Art. No. L15. ISSN 2041-8205. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ac5890.

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This Letter presents the detection of a source at the position of the Type Ib/c supernova (SN) 2013ge more than four years after the radioactive component is expected to have faded. This source could mark the first post-SN direct detection of a surviving companion to a stripped-envelope Type Ib/c explosion. We test this hypothesis and find the shape of the source’s spectral energy distribution is most consistent with that of a B5 I supergiant. While binary models tend to predict OB-type stars for stripped-envelope companions, the location of the source on a color–magnitude diagram places it redward of its more likely position on the main sequence (MS). The source may be temporarily out of thermal equilibrium, or a cool and inflated non-MS companion, which is similar to the suggested companion of Type Ib SN 2019yvr that was constrained from pre-SN imaging. We also consider other possible physical scenarios for the source, including a fading SN, circumstellar shock interaction, line-of-sight coincidence, and an unresolved host star cluster, all of which will require future observations to more definitively rule out. Ultimately, the fraction of surviving companions (“binary fraction”) will provide necessary constraints on binary evolution models and the underlying physics.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Fox, Ori D.0000-0003-2238-1572
Van Dyk, Schuyler D.0000-0001-9038-9950
Williams, Benjamin F.0000-0002-7502-0597
Drout, Maria0000-0001-7081-0082
Zapartas, Emmanouil0000-0002-7464-498X
Smith, Nathan0000-0001-5510-2424
Milisavljevic, Dan0000-0002-0763-3885
Andrews, Jennifer E.0000-0003-0123-0062
Bostroem, K. Azalee0000-0002-4924-444X
Filippenko, Alexei V.0000-0003-3460-0103
Gomez, Sebastian0000-0001-6395-6702
Kelly, Patrick L.0000-0003-3142-997X
de Mink, S. E.0000-0001-9336-2825
Pierel, Justin0000-0002-2361-7201
Rest, Armin0000-0002-4410-5387
Ryder, Stuart0000-0003-4501-8100
Strolger, Lou0000-0002-7756-4440
Wang, Qinan0000-0001-5233-6989
Weil, Kathryn E.0000-0002-8360-0831
Additional Information:© 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2022 January 7; revised 2022 February 21; accepted 2022 February 24; published 2022 April 13. This research is based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained from the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5–26555. These observations are associated with programs GO-16165 (PI O. Fox), GO-15166 (PI A. Filippenko), GO-14762 (PI J. Maund), and GO-14668 (PI A. Filippenko); we are also grateful for the associated funding from NASA/STScI. O.D.F. would like to thank Karl Gordon for useful conversations on dust. E.Z. acknowledges support from the Swiss National Science Foundation Professorship grant (project PP00P2 176868; PI Tassos Fragos). M.R.D. acknowledges support from the NSERC through grant RGPIN-2019-06186, the Canada Research Chairs Program, the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR), and the Dunlap Institute at the University of Toronto. In addition to the NASA/STScI funding, A.V.F. received support from the Miller Institute for Basic Research in Science (where he was a Miller Senior Fellow) and the Christopher R. Redlich Fund. D.M. acknowledges NSF support from grants PHY-1914448 and AST-2037297.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASANAS 5-26555
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)PP00P2 176868
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)RGPIN-2019-06186
Canada Research Chairs ProgramUNSPECIFIED
Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR)UNSPECIFIED
Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and AstrophysicsUNSPECIFIED
Miller Institute for Basic Research in ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Christopher R. Redlich FundUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Type Ic supernovae; Type Ib supernovae; Core-collapse supernovae; Close binary stars; Massive stars
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Type Ic supernovae (1730); Type Ib supernovae (1729); Core-collapse supernovae (304); Close binary stars (254); Massive stars (732)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220414-26670000
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Ori D. Fox et al 2022 ApJL 929 L15
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:114313
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:18 Apr 2022 22:26
Last Modified:18 Apr 2022 22:26

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