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Stellar masses, sizes, and radial profiles for 465 nearby early-type galaxies: An extension to the Spitzer survey of stellar structure in Galaxies (S⁴G)

Watkins, A. E. and Salo, H. and Laurikainen, E. and Díaz-García, S. and Comerón, S. and Janz, J. and Su, A. H. and Buta, R. J. and Athanassoula, E. and Bosman, A. and Ho, L. C. and Holwerda, B. W. and Kim, T. and Knapen, J. H. and Laine, S. and Menéndez-Delmestre, K. and Peletier, R. F. and Sheth, K. and Zaritsky, D. (2022) Stellar masses, sizes, and radial profiles for 465 nearby early-type galaxies: An extension to the Spitzer survey of stellar structure in Galaxies (S⁴G). Astronomy and Astrophysics, 660 . Art. No. A69. ISSN 0004-6361. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202142627. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20220414-26705000

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Abstract

Context. The Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S⁴G) is a detailed study of over 2300 nearby galaxies in the near-infrared (NIR), which has been critical to our understanding of the detailed structures of nearby galaxies. Because the sample galaxies were selected only using radio-derived velocities, however, the survey favored late-type disk galaxies over lenticulars and ellipticals. Aims. A follow-up Spitzer survey was conducted to rectify this bias, adding 465 early-type galaxies (ETGs) to the original sample, to be analyzed in a manner consistent with the initial survey. We present the data release of this ETG extension, up to the third data processing pipeline (P3): surface photometry. Methods. We produce curves of growth and radial surface brightness profiles (with and without inclination corrections) using reduced and masked Spitzer IRAC 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm images produced through Pipelines 1 and 2, respectively. From these profiles, we derive the following integrated quantities: total magnitudes, stellar masses, concentration parameters, and galaxy size metrics. We showcase NIR scaling relations for ETGs among these quantities. Results. We examine general trends across the whole S⁴G and ETG extension among our derived parameters, highlighting differences between ETGs and late-type galaxies (LTGs). The latter are, on average, more massive and more concentrated than LTGs, and subtle distinctions are seen among ETG morphological subtypes. We also derive the following scaling relations and compare them with previous results in visible light: mass-size (both half-light and isophotal), mass-concentration, mass-surface brightness (central, effective, and within 1 kpc), and mass-color. Conclusions. We find good agreement with previous works, though some relations (e.g., mass-central surface brightness) will require more careful multicomponent decompositions to be fully understood. The relations between mass and isophotal radius and between mass and surface brightness within 1 kpc, in particular, show notably small scatter. The former provides important constraints on the limits of size growth in galaxies, possibly related to star formation thresholds, while the latter–particularly when paired with the similarly tight relation for LTGs–showcases the striking self-similarity of galaxy cores, suggesting they evolve little over cosmic time. All of the profiles and parameters described in this paper will be provided to the community via the NASA/IPAC database on a dedicated website.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202142627DOIArticle
https://arxiv.org/abs/2201.08381arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Watkins, A. E.0000-0003-4859-3290
Laurikainen, E.0000-0001-5412-2183
Díaz-García, S.0000-0002-4662-1289
Comerón, S.0000-0002-7398-4907
Buta, R. J.0000-0003-2154-8203
Athanassoula, E.0000-0001-6079-1332
Bosman, A.0000-0003-4001-3589
Ho, L. C.0000-0001-6947-5846
Holwerda, B. W.0000-0002-4884-6756
Knapen, J. H.0000-0003-1643-0024
Laine, S.0000-0003-1250-8314
Menéndez-Delmestre, K.0000-0003-3153-5123
Peletier, R. F.0000-0001-7621-947X
Sheth, K.0000-0002-5496-4118
Zaritsky, D.0000-0002-5177-727X
Additional Information:© ESO 2022. Received: 9 November 2021 Accepted: 18 January 2022. AW acknowledges support from the STFC [ST/S00615X/1]. SC acknowledges funding from the State Research Agency (AEI-MCINN) of the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation under the grants “The structure and evolution of galaxies and their central regions” with reference PID2019-105602GB-I00/10.13039/501100011033, and “Thick discs, relics of the infancy of galaxies" with reference PID2020-113213GA-I00. This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 893673 (SDG), as well as grant agreement No. 721463 to the SUNDIAL ITN network (AHS, HS, JHK), from the State Research Agency (AEI-MCINN) of the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation under the grant “The structure and evolution of galaxies and their central regions” with reference PID2019-105602GB-I00/10.13039/501100011033, and from the IAC project P/300724 which is financed by the Ministry of Science and Innovation, through the State Budget and by the Canary Islands Department of Economy, Knowledge and Employment, through the Regional Budget of the Autonomous Community. EA and AB gratefully acknowledge financial support from CNES (Centre National d’Études Spatiales, France). LCH is supported by the National Science Foundation of China (11721303 and 11991052) and the National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFA0400702). TK acknowledges support from the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2019R1I1A3A02062242). KMD thanks the support of the Serrapilheira Institute (grant Serra-1709-17357) as well as that of the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq grant 312702/2017-5) and of the Carlos Chagas Filho Foundation for Supporting Research in the State of Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ grant E-26/203.184/2017), Brazil. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which was operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech. This research has made use of the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED), which is funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and operated by the California Institute of Technology. This work made use of the Python packages Numpy (Harris et al. 2020), Scipy (Virtanen et al. 2020), and Matplotlib (Hunter 2007). We thank Jarkko Laine for providing us with some of the IRAF scripts used to produce the radial profiles discussed in MM2015, which were critical to us for keeping the methodology consistent across such a gap of time. Finally, we thank the anonymous referee for their valuable feedback.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/S00615X/1
Agencia Estatal de InvestigaciónPID2019-105602GB-I00/10.13039/501100011033
Agencia Estatal de InvestigaciónPID2020-113213GA-I00
Marie Curie Fellowship893673
European Research Council (ERC)721463
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN)P/300724
Canary Islands Department of Economy, Knowledge and EmploymentUNSPECIFIED
Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES)UNSPECIFIED
National Natural Science Foundation of China11721303
National Natural Science Foundation of China11991052
National Key Research and Development Program of China2016YFA0400702
National Research Foundation of KoreaNRF-2019R1I1A3A02062242
Serrapilheira InstituteSerra-1709-17357
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)312702/2017-5
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ)E-26/203.184/2017
NASA/JPL/CaltechUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:galaxies: evolution / galaxies: photometry / galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD / galaxies: structure / galaxies: statistics / galaxies: spiral
DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/202142627
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220414-26705000
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20220414-26705000
Official Citation:Stellar masses, sizes, and radial profiles for 465 nearby early-type galaxies: An extension to the Spitzer survey of stellar structure in Galaxies (S4G) A. E. Watkins, H. Salo, E. Laurikainen, S. Díaz-García, S. Comerón, J. Janz, A. H. Su, R. Buta, E. Athanassoula, A. Bosma, L. C. Ho, B. W. Holwerda, T. Kim, J. H. Knapen, S. Laine, K. Menéndez-Delmestre, R. F. Peletier, K. Sheth and D. Zaritsky A&A, 660 (2022) A69 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202142627
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:114314
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:18 Apr 2022 22:18
Last Modified:18 Apr 2022 22:18

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