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Virgo Filaments. II. Catalog and First Results on the Effect of Filaments on Galaxy Properties

Castignani, Gianluca and Vulcani, Benedetta and Finn, Rose A. and Combes, Francoise and Jablonka, Pascale and Rudnick, Gregory and Zaritsky, Dennis and Whalen, Kelly and Conger, Kim and De Lucia, Gabriella and Desai, Vandana and Koopmann, Rebecca A. and Moustakas, John and Norman, Dara J. and Townsend, Mindy (2022) Virgo Filaments. II. Catalog and First Results on the Effect of Filaments on Galaxy Properties. Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 259 (2). Art. No. 43. ISSN 0067-0049. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/ac45f7. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20220422-268369700

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Abstract

Virgo is the nearest galaxy cluster; it is thus ideal for studies of galaxy evolution in dense environments in the local universe. It is embedded in a complex filamentary network of galaxies and groups, which represents the skeleton of the large-scale Laniakea supercluster. Here we assemble a comprehensive catalog of galaxies extending up to ∼12 virial radii in projection from Virgo to revisit the cosmic-web structure around it. This work is the foundation of a series of papers that will investigate the multiwavelength properties of galaxies in the cosmic web around Virgo. We match spectroscopically confirmed sources from several databases and surveys including HyperLeda, NASA Sloan Atlas, NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database, and ALFALFA. The sample consists of ∼7000 galaxies. By exploiting a tomographic approach, we identify 13 filaments, spanning several megaparsecs in length. Long >17 h⁻¹ Mpc filaments, tend to be thin (<1 h⁻¹ Mpc in radius) and with a low-density contrast (<5), while shorter filaments show a larger scatter in their structural properties. Overall, we find that filaments are a transitioning environment between the field and cluster in terms of local densities, galaxy morphologies, and fraction of barred galaxies. Denser filaments have a higher fraction of early-type galaxies, suggesting that the morphology–density relation is already in place in the filaments, before galaxies fall into the cluster itself. We release the full catalog of galaxies around Virgo and their associated properties.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4365/ac45f7DOIArticle
https://arxiv.org/abs/2110.13797arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Castignani, Gianluca0000-0001-6831-0687
Vulcani, Benedetta0000-0003-0980-1499
Finn, Rose A.0000-0001-8518-4862
Combes, Francoise0000-0003-2658-7893
Jablonka, Pascale0000-0002-9655-1063
Rudnick, Gregory0000-0001-5851-1856
Zaritsky, Dennis0000-0002-5177-727X
Whalen, Kelly0000-0002-8571-9801
De Lucia, Gabriella0000-0002-6220-9104
Desai, Vandana0000-0002-1340-0543
Koopmann, Rebecca A.0000-0002-3144-2501
Moustakas, John0000-0002-2733-4559
Norman, Dara J.0000-0001-8452-9574
Additional Information:© 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2021 June 15; revised 2021 October 8; accepted 2021 October 20; published 2022 March 23. The authors thank the hospitality of the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) in Bern (Switzerland) and of the Lorentz Center in Leiden (Netherlands). Regular group meetings in these institutes allowed the authors to make substantial progress on the project and finalize the present work. G.C. acknowledges financial support from the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF). B.V. acknowledges financial contribution from the grant PRIN MIUR 2017 n.20173ML3WW_001 (PI Cimatti) and from the INAF main-stream funding program (PI Vulcani). R.A.F. gratefully acknowledges support from NSF grants AST-0847430 and AST-1716657. G.H.R. acknowledges support from NSF-AST 1716690. This research has made use of the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED) which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. We acknowledge the usage of the HyperLeda database. 25 This research made use of Astropy, 26 a community developed core Python package for Astronomy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013, 2018), matplotlib (Hunter 2007), and TOPCAT (Taylor 2005).
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)UNSPECIFIED
Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Universita e della Ricerca (MIUR)20173ML3WW_001
Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF)UNSPECIFIED
NSFAST-0847430
NSFAST-1716657
NSFAST-1716690
NASA/JPL/CaltechUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Galaxy clusters; Virgo Cluster; Large-scale structure of the universe; Astronomy databases; Catalogs; Surveys
Issue or Number:2
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Galaxy clusters (584); Virgo Cluster (1772); Large-scale structure of the universe (902); Astronomy databases (83); Catalogs (205); Surveys (1671)
DOI:10.3847/1538-4365/ac45f7
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220422-268369700
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20220422-268369700
Official Citation:Gianluca Castignani et al 2022 ApJS 259 43
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:114425
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:25 Apr 2022 18:52
Last Modified:25 Apr 2022 18:52

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