A Caltech Library Service

Additive manufacturing of 3D batteries: a perspective

Narita, Kai and Saccone, Max A. and Sun, Yuchun and Greer, Julia R. (2022) Additive manufacturing of 3D batteries: a perspective. Journal of Materials Research, 37 (9). pp. 1535-1546. ISSN 0884-2914. doi:10.1557/s43578-022-00562-w.

Full text is not posted in this repository. Consult Related URLs below.

Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


Additive manufacturing (AM) enables the fabrication of battery materials with complex geometries. When battery components can take arbitrary form factors, opportunities emerge for creating electrode configurations with improved power density, reduced weight, and excellent mechanical stability. We provide a perspective on recent progress in AM of 3D batteries, discussing relevant techniques, materials, designs, and applications. We highlight advantages and limitations associated with battery electrodes fabricated by direct ink writing, fused deposition modeling, vat photopolymerization, and selective laser sintering. Additionally, we discuss optimal geometries and compatible materials for anode, cathode, and electrolyte of fully 3D batteries. To increase transparency and utility in the field, we suggest a standardized set of reporting metrics for 3D batteries. Finally, we identify key opportunities for implementation where 3D batteries can provide critical advantages such as shape conformability and the ability to serve as multifunctional or structural components.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription ReadCube access
Narita, Kai0000-0002-3867-8234
Saccone, Max A.0000-0003-3846-2908
Sun, Yuchun0000-0002-7028-3523
Greer, Julia R.0000-0002-9675-1508
Additional Information:© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to The Materials Research Society 2022. Received 24 January 2022; Accepted 11 April 2022; Published 28 April 2022. The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support from the Resnick Sustainability Institute at Caltech, the Keck Institute for Space Studies at Caltech, and the DoD through J.R.G.'s Vannevar Bush Faculty Fellowship. K.N. acknowledges a graduate fellowship from the Masason Foundation. M.A.S. acknowledges a graduate fellowship from the Resnick Sustainability Institute at Caltech. Data and code availability: The data and code generated and/or analyzed in this study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request. Conflict of interest: K.N. is an employee of 24M Technologies, Inc., a company that manufactures Li-ion batteries.
Group:Keck Institute for Space Studies, Resnick Sustainability Institute
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Resnick Sustainability InstituteUNSPECIFIED
Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS)UNSPECIFIED
Vannever Bush Faculty FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Masason FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Additive manufacturing; 3D printing; Batteries; 3D batteries; Stereolithography; Vat photopolymerization; Interdigitated; Direct ink writing; Fused deposition modeling; Selective laser sintering; SLA; VP; DIW; FDM; SLS
Issue or Number:9
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220502-202342151
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Narita, K., Saccone, M.A., Sun, Y. et al. Additive manufacturing of 3D batteries: a perspective. Journal of Materials Research 37, 1535–1546 (2022).
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:114547
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:03 May 2022 17:34
Last Modified:12 Jul 2022 20:12

Repository Staff Only: item control page