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Wave-driven Outbursts and Variability of Low-mass Supernova Progenitors

Wu, Samantha C. and Fuller, Jim (2022) Wave-driven Outbursts and Variability of Low-mass Supernova Progenitors. Astrophysical Journal, 930 (2). Art. No. 119. ISSN 0004-637X. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac660c.

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In a substantial number of core-collapse supernovae (SNe), early-time interaction indicates a dense circumstellar medium (CSM) that may be produced by outbursts from the progenitor star. Wave-driven mass loss is a possible mechanism to produce these signatures, with previous work suggesting that this mechanism is most effective for low-mass (∼11 M_⊙) SN progenitors. Using one-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations with MESA, we study the effects of this wave heating in SN progenitors of masses M_(ZAMS) = 10–13 M_⊙. This range encompasses stars that experience semidegenerate central neon burning and more degenerate off-center neon ignition. We find that central Ne ignition at M_(ZAMS) = 11 M_⊙ produces a burst of intense wave heating that transmits ∼10⁴⁷ erg of energy at 10 yr before core collapse, whereas other masses experience smaller levels of wave heating. Wave heating does not hydrodynamically drive mass loss in any of our models and is unlikely to produce a very massive CSM on its own. However, wave heating can cause large radial expansion (by more than an order of magnitude), photospheric cooling, and luminosity brightening by up to ∼10⁶ L_⊙ in hydrogen-poor stripped star models. Some Type Ib/c progenitors could drastically change their appearance in the final years of their lives, with brightness in the visual bands increasing by nearly 3 mag. Moreover, interaction with a close binary companion could drive intense mass loss, with implications for Type Ibn and other interaction-powered SNe.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Wu, Samantha C.0000-0003-2872-5153
Fuller, Jim0000-0002-4544-0750
Additional Information:© 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2022 January 5; revised 2022 March 29; accepted 2022 April 9; published 2022 May 11. We thank Adam Jermyn for supplying the time-dependent convection modules from a MESA development version and Charlie Kilpatrick for help with HST filter functions. This work was partially supported by NASA grants HSTAR-15021.001-A and 80NSSC18K1017. J.F. acknowledges support from an Innovator Grant from the Rose Hills Foundation and the Sloan Foundation through grant FG2018-10515. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under grant No. DGE-1745301.
Group:Astronomy Department, TAPIR
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASA Hubble FellowshipHST-AR-15021.001-A
Rose Hills FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationFG2018-10515
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1745301
Subject Keywords:Circumstellar matter; Stellar astronomy; Stellar mass loss; Supernovae
Issue or Number:2
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Circumstellar matter (241); Stellar astronomy (1583); Stellar mass loss (1613); Supernovae (1668)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220512-561420000
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Official Citation:Samantha C. Wu and Jim Fuller 2022 ApJ 930 119
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:114708
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:13 May 2022 17:40
Last Modified:13 May 2022 17:40

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