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The TESS-Keck Survey. XI. Mass Measurements for Four Transiting Sub-Neptunes Orbiting K Dwarf TOI–1246

Turtelboom, Emma V. and Weiss, Lauren M. and Dressing, Courtney D. and Nowak, Grzegorz and Pallé, Enric and Beard, Corey and Blunt, Sarah and Brinkman, Casey and Chontos, Ashley and Claytor, Zachary R. and Dai, Fei and Dalba, Paul A. and Giacalone, Steven and Gonzales, Erica and Harada, Caleb K. and Hill, Michelle L. and Holcomb, Rae and Korth, Judith and Lubin, Jack and Masseron, Thomas and MacDougall, Mason and Mayo, Andrew W. and Močnik, Teo and Murphy, Joseph M. Akana and Polanski, Alex S. and Rice, Malena and Rubenzahl, Ryan A. and Scarsdale, Nicholas and Stassun, Keivan G. and Tyler, Dakotah B. and Van Zandt, Judah and Crossfield, Ian J. M. and Deeg, Hans J. and Fulton, Benjamin and Gandolfi, Davide and Howard, Andrew W. and Huber, Dan and Isaacson, Howard and Kane, Stephen R. and Lam, Kristine W. F. and Luque, Rafael and Martín, Eduardo L. and Morello, Giuseppe and Orell-Miquel, Jaume and Petigura, Erik A. and Robertson, Paul and Roy, Arpita and Van Eylen, Vincent and Baker, David and Belinski, Alexander A. and Bieryla, Allyson and Ciardi, David R. and Collins, Karen A. and Cutting, Neil and Della-Rose, Devin J. and Ellingsen, Taylor B. and Furlan, E. and Gan, Tianjun and Gnilka, Crystal L. and Guerra, Pere and Howell, Steve B. and Jimenez, Mary and Latham, David W. and Larivière, Maude and Lester, Kathryn V. and Lillo-Box, Jorge and Luker, Lindy and Mann, Christopher R. and Plavchan, Peter P. and Safonov, Boris and Skinner, Brett and Strakhov, Ivan A. and Wittrock, Justin M. and Caldwell, Douglas A. and Essack, Zahra and Jenkins, Jon M. and Quintana, Elisa V. and Ricker, George R. and Vanderspek, Roland and Seager, S. and Winn, Joshua N. (2022) The TESS-Keck Survey. XI. Mass Measurements for Four Transiting Sub-Neptunes Orbiting K Dwarf TOI–1246. Astronomical Journal, 163 (6). Art. No. 293. ISSN 0004-6256. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/ac69e5.

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Multiplanet systems are valuable arenas for investigating exoplanet architectures and comparing planetary siblings. TOI-1246 is one such system, with a moderately bright K dwarf (V = 11.6, K = 9.9) and four transiting sub-Neptunes identified by TESS with orbital periods of 4.31, 5.90, 18.66, and 37.92 days. We collected 130 radial velocity observations with Keck/HIRES and TNG/HARPS-N to measure planet masses. We refit the 14 sectors of TESS photometry to refine planet radii (2.97 ± 0.06 R_⊕, 2.47 ± 0.08 R_⊕, 3.46 ± 0.09 R_⊕, and 3.72 ± 0.16 R_⊕) and confirm the four planets. We find that TOI-1246 e is substantially more massive than the three inner planets (8.1 ± 1.1 M_⊕, 8.8 ± 1.2 M_⊕, 5.3 ± 1.7 M_⊕, and 14.8 ± 2.3 M_⊕). The two outer planets, TOI-1246 d and TOI-1246 e, lie near to the 2:1 resonance (P_e/P_d = 2.03) and exhibit transit-timing variations. TOI-1246 is one of the brightest four-planet systems, making it amenable for continued observations. It is one of only five systems with measured masses and radii for all four transiting planets. The planet densities range from 0.70 ± 0.24 to 3.21 ± 0.44 g cm⁻¹, implying a range of bulk and atmospheric compositions. We also report a fifth planet candidate found in the RV data with a minimum mass of 25.6 ± 3.6 M_⊕. This planet candidate is exterior to TOI-1246 e, with a candidate period of 93.8 days, and we discuss the implications if it is confirmed to be planetary in nature.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Turtelboom, Emma V.0000-0002-1845-2617
Weiss, Lauren M.0000-0002-3725-3058
Dressing, Courtney D.0000-0001-8189-0233
Nowak, Grzegorz0000-0002-7031-7754
Pallé, Enric0000-0003-0987-1593
Beard, Corey0000-0001-7708-2364
Blunt, Sarah0000-0002-3199-2888
Brinkman, Casey0000-0002-4480-310X
Chontos, Ashley0000-0003-1125-2564
Claytor, Zachary R.0000-0002-9879-3904
Dai, Fei0000-0002-8958-0683
Dalba, Paul A.0000-0002-4297-5506
Giacalone, Steven0000-0002-8965-3969
Gonzales, Erica0000-0002-9329-2190
Harada, Caleb K.0000-0001-5737-1687
Hill, Michelle L.0000-0002-0139-4756
Holcomb, Rae0000-0002-5034-9476
Korth, Judith0000-0002-0076-6239
Lubin, Jack0000-0001-8342-7736
Masseron, Thomas0000-0002-6939-0831
MacDougall, Mason0000-0003-2562-9043
Mayo, Andrew W.0000-0002-7216-2135
Močnik, Teo0000-0003-4603-556X
Murphy, Joseph M. Akana0000-0001-8898-8284
Polanski, Alex S.0000-0001-7047-8681
Rice, Malena0000-0002-7670-670X
Rubenzahl, Ryan A.0000-0003-3856-3143
Scarsdale, Nicholas0000-0003-3623-7280
Stassun, Keivan G.0000-0002-3481-9052
Tyler, Dakotah B.0000-0003-0298-4667
Van Zandt, Judah0000-0002-4290-6826
Crossfield, Ian J. M.0000-0002-1835-1891
Deeg, Hans J.0000-0003-0047-4241
Fulton, Benjamin0000-0003-3504-5316
Gandolfi, Davide0000-0001-8627-9628
Howard, Andrew W.0000-0001-8638-0320
Huber, Dan0000-0001-8832-4488
Isaacson, Howard0000-0002-0531-1073
Kane, Stephen R.0000-0002-7084-0529
Lam, Kristine W. F.0000-0002-9910-6088
Luque, Rafael0000-0002-4671-2957
Martín, Eduardo L.0000-0002-1208-4833
Morello, Giuseppe0000-0002-4262-5661
Orell-Miquel, Jaume0000-0003-2066-8959
Petigura, Erik A.0000-0003-0967-2893
Robertson, Paul0000-0003-0149-9678
Roy, Arpita0000-0001-8127-5775
Van Eylen, Vincent0000-0001-5542-8870
Baker, David0000-0002-2970-0532
Belinski, Alexander A.0000-0003-3469-0989
Bieryla, Allyson0000-0001-6637-5401
Ciardi, David R.0000-0002-5741-3047
Collins, Karen A.0000-0001-6588-9574
Della-Rose, Devin J.0000-0002-6042-7351
Furlan, E.0000-0001-9800-6248
Gan, Tianjun0000-0002-4503-9705
Gnilka, Crystal L.0000-0003-2519-6161
Guerra, Pere0000-0002-4308-2339
Howell, Steve B.0000-0002-2532-2853
Jimenez, Mary0000-0002-5000-9316
Latham, David W.0000-0001-9911-7388
Lester, Kathryn V.0000-0002-9903-9911
Lillo-Box, Jorge0000-0003-3742-1987
Mann, Christopher R.0000-0002-9312-0073
Plavchan, Peter P.0000-0002-8864-1667
Safonov, Boris0000-0003-1713-3208
Strakhov, Ivan A.0000-0003-0647-6133
Wittrock, Justin M.0000-0002-7424-9891
Caldwell, Douglas A.0000-0003-1963-9616
Essack, Zahra0000-0002-2482-0180
Jenkins, Jon M.0000-0002-4715-9460
Quintana, Elisa V.0000-0003-1309-2904
Ricker, George R.0000-0003-2058-6662
Vanderspek, Roland0000-0001-6763-6562
Seager, S.0000-0002-6892-6948
Winn, Joshua N.0000-0002-4265-047X
Additional Information:© 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2021 December 23; revised 2022 April 7; accepted 2022 April 22; published 2022 May 25. We thank the time assignment committees of the University of California, the California Institute of Technology, NASA, and the University of Hawaii for supporting the TESS-Keck Survey with observing time at Keck Observatory. We thank NASA for funding associated with our Key Strategic Mission Support project. We gratefully acknowledge the efforts and dedication of the Keck Observatory staff for support of HIRES and remote observing. We recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Maunakea has within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are deeply grateful to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. We thank Ken and Gloria Levy, who supported the construction of the Levy Spectrometer on the Automated Planet Finder. We thank the University of California and Google for supporting Lick Observatory, and the UCO staff for their dedicated work scheduling and operating the telescopes of Lick Observatory. This paper is based on data collected by the TESS mission. Funding for the TESS mission is provided by the NASA Explorer Program. This paper includes data collected by the TESS mission. Funding for the TESS mission is provided by NASA's Science Mission Directorate. We acknowledge the use of public TOI Release data from pipelines at the TESS Science Office and at the TESS Science Processing Operations Center. Resources supporting this work were provided by the NASA High-End Computing (HEC) Program through the NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) Division at Ames Research Center for the production of the SPOC data products. This research has made use of the Exoplanet Follow-up Observation Program website, which is operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under the Exoplanet Exploration Program. This research has also made use of the NASA Exoplanet Archive, which is operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under the Exoplanet Exploration Program. This work also makes use of observations from the LCOGT network. Part of the LCOGT telescope time was granted by NOIRLab through the Mid-Scale Innovations Program (MSIP). MSIP is funded by NSF. This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (, processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC; Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. This research was made possible through the use of the AAVSO Photometric All-Sky Survey (APASS), funded by the Robert Martin Ayers Sciences Fund and NSF AST-1412587. This publication also makes use of data products from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation. This publication makes use of data products from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, which is a joint project of the University of California, Los Angeles, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This work is based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundación Galileo Galilei of the INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias under programs CAT19A_162, ITP19_1 and A41TAC_49. Part of this work is done under the framework of the KESPRINT collaboration ( KESPRINT is an international consortium devoted to the characterization and research of exoplanets discovered with space-based missions. This work is partly financed by the Spanish Ministry of Economics and Competitiveness through grants PGC2018-098153-B-C31. Some of the observations in the paper made use of the High-Resolution Imaging instrument Alopeke obtained under Gemini LLP Proposal Number: GN/S-2021A-LP-105. Alopeke was funded by the NASA Exoplanet Exploration Program and built at the NASA Ames Research Center by Steve B. Howell, Nic Scott, Elliott P. Horch, and Emmett Quigley. 'Alopeke was mounted on the Gemini North telescope of the international Gemini Observatory, a program of NSF's NOIR Lab, which is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), National Research Council (Canada), Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (Argentina), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovações e Comunicações (Brazil), and Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (Republic of Korea). C.D. gratefully acknowledges support from the David & Lucile Packard Foundation and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. A.A.B., B.S.S., and I.A.S. acknowledge the support of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation under the grant 075-15-2020-780(N13.1902.21.0039). J.K. gratefully acknowledges the support of the Swedish National Space Agency (SNSA; DNR 2020-00104). A.W.M. is supported by the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship grant No. DGE 1752814. J.M.A.M. is supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program under grant No. DGE-1842400. J.M.A.M. acknowledges the LSSTC Data Science Fellowship Program, which is funded by LSSTC, NSF Cybertraining grant No. 1829740, the Brinson Foundation, and the Moore Foundation; his participation in the program has benefited this work. C.K.H. acknowledges support from the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program under grant No. DGE 2146752. M.R. is supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program under grant No. DGE-1752134. R.A.R. is supported by an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship, grant No. DGE 1745301. P.D. is supported by a National Science Foundation (NSF) Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship under award AST-1903811. R.L. acknowledges financial support from the Centre of Excellence "Severo Ochoa" award to the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-2017-0709). D.H. acknowledges support from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (80NSSC20K0593, 80NSSC21K0652). T.M. acknowledges financial support from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (MICINN) through the Spanish State Research Agency, under the Severo Ochoa Program 2020-2023 (CEX2019-000920-S). K.W.F.L. acknowledges support by DFG grants RA714/14-1 within the DFG Schwerpunkt SPP 1992, "Exploring the Diversity of Extrasolar Planets." This research made use of Lightkurve, a Python package for Kepler and TESS data analysis (Lightkurve Collaboration, 2018). This research also made use of Astropy, 65 a community-developed core Python package for Astronomy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013, 2018). This research made use of exoplanet and its dependencies (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013; Kipping 2013; Salvatier et al. 2016; Theano Development Team 2016; Astropy Collaboration et al. 2018; Luger et al. 2019; Van Eylen et al. 2019; Agol et al. 2020; Foreman-Mackey et al. 2020). This work made use of tpfplotter by J. Lillo-Box (publicly available at, which also made use of the python packages Astropy, Lightkurve, Matplotlib, and NumPy. Facilities: TESS - , Keck:I (HIRES) - KECK I Telescope, TNG (HARPS-N) - Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, Keck:II (NIRC2) - KECK II Telescope, Gemini:Gillett ('Alopeke) - Gillett Gemini North Telescope, LCOGT - Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope, Dragonfly Telephoto Array - , TRES (Tillinghast) - , CAHA (Astralux) - , Exoplanet Archive - , Gaia - . Software: Astropy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013, 2018), Astroquery (Ginsburg et al. 2019), batman (Kreidberg 2015), emcee (Foreman-Mackey et al. 2013), SpecMatch (Petigura et al. 2017), exoplanet (Agol et al. 2020), Lightkurve (Lightkurve Collaboration et al. 2018), RadVel (Fulton et al. 2018), SPOCK (Tamayo et al. 2020), Transit Least Squares (Hippke & Heller 2019), kiauhoku (Claytor et al. 2020), Matplotlib (Hunter 2007), NumPy (Harris et al. 2020), astrasens (Lillo-Box et al. 2012, 2014), AstroImageJ (Collins et al. 2017), TAPIR (Jensen 2013), celerite (Foreman-Mackey et al. 2017).
Group:Astronomy Department, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Ken and Gloria LevyUNSPECIFIED
Gaia Multilateral AgreementUNSPECIFIED
Robert Martin Ayers Sciences FundUNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)PGC2018-098153-B-C31
Gemini PartnershipUNSPECIFIED
David and Lucile Packard FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation075-15-2020-780
Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian FederationN13.1902.21.0039
Swedish National Space Agency2020-00104
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1752814
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1842400
Large Synoptic Survey Telescope CorporationUNSPECIFIED
Brinson FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-2146752
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1752134
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1745301
NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics FellowshipAST-1903811
Severo OchoaSEV-2017-0709
Centro de Excelencia Severo OchoaCEX2019-000920-S
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)RA714/14-1
Subject Keywords:Exoplanet astronomy; Mini Neptunes; Exoplanets; Radial velocity; Transits; Transit photometry; Transit timing variation method; Exoplanet systems
Issue or Number:6
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Exoplanet astronomy (486); Mini Neptunes (1063); Exoplanets (498); Radial velocity (1332); Transits (1711); Transit photometry (1709); Transit timing variation method (1710); Exoplanet systems (484)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220517-214311999
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Emma V. Turtelboom et al 2022 AJ 163 293
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:114791
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:18 May 2022 17:06
Last Modified:30 Jun 2022 16:12

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