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A Multiplanet System’s Sole Super-puff: Exploring Allowable Physical Parameters for the Cold Super-puff HIP 41378 f

Belkovski, Michelle and Becker, Juliette and Howe, Alex and Malsky, Isaac and Batygin, Konstantin (2022) A Multiplanet System’s Sole Super-puff: Exploring Allowable Physical Parameters for the Cold Super-puff HIP 41378 f. Astronomical Journal, 163 (6). Art. No. 277. ISSN 0004-6256. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/ac6353.

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The census of known exoplanets exhibits a variety of physical parameters, including densities that are measured to span the range from less dense than Styrofoam to more dense than iron. These densities represent a large diversity of interior structures. Despite this staggering diversity, recent analyses have shown that the densities of planets that orbit a common star exhibit remarkable uniformity. A fascinating exception to this is the system HIP 41378 (also known as K2-93), which contains a super-puff planet, HIP 41378 f, as well as several planets with more typical bulk densities. The range of densities in this system begs the question of what physical processes are responsible for the disparate planetary structures in this system. In this paper, we consider how the densities of the planets in the HIP 41378 system would have changed over time as the host star evolved and the planets’ atmospheres were subsequently affected by the evolving insolation level. We also present a range of allowable core masses for HIP 41378 f based on the measured planet parameters, and we comment on the feasibility of the proposed existence of planetary rings around HIP 41378 f as an explanation for its current low density.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Belkovski, Michelle0000-0003-4030-233X
Becker, Juliette0000-0002-7733-4522
Howe, Alex0000-0002-4884-7150
Malsky, Isaac0000-0003-0217-3880
Batygin, Konstantin0000-0002-7094-7908
Alternate Title:A Multi-Planet System's Sole Super-Puff: Exploring Allowable Physical Parameters for the Cold Super-Puff HIP 41378 f
Additional Information:© 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2021 September 21; revised 2022 March 14; accepted 2022 March 28; published 2022 May 18. M.B. thanks the University of Michigan Undergraduate Research Opportunity and Research Scholars programs for their support of this project. J.C.B. has been supported by the Heising-Simons 51 Pegasi b postdoctoral fellowship. We thank Rodrigo Luger and Rory Barnes for useful conversations and assistance with VPLanet. We also thank the anonymous referee for their invaluable insight into our paper, which led to substantial improvements. This research has made use of the NASA Exoplanet Archive, which is operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under the Exoplanet Exploration Program. Facility: Exoplanet Archive. - Software: pandas (McKinney 2010), IPython (Pérez & Granger 2007), matplotlib (Hunter 2007), scipy (Jones et al. 2001), numpy (Oliphant 2006), Jupyter (Kluyver et al. 2016), VPLanet (Barnes et al. 2020), PlanetSolver (Howe & Burrows 2015).
Funding AgencyGrant Number
University of MichiganUNSPECIFIED
Heising-Simons Foundation51 Pegasi b Fellowship
Subject Keywords:Exoplanet atmospheres; Exoplanet evolution; Exoplanet structure
Issue or Number:6
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Exoplanet atmospheres (487); Exoplanet evolution (491); Exoplanet structure (495)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220519-375172000
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Official Citation:Michelle Belkovski et al 2022 AJ 163 277
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:114813
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:19 May 2022 20:59
Last Modified:19 May 2022 20:59

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