A Caltech Library Service

Anomalous Cosmic Rays and Heliospheric Energetic Particles

Giacalone, J. and Fahr, H. and Fichtner, H. and Florinski, V. and Heber, B. and Hill, M. E. and Kóta, J. and Leske, R. A. and Potgieter, M. S. and Rankin, J. S. (2022) Anomalous Cosmic Rays and Heliospheric Energetic Particles. Space Science Reviews, 218 (4). Art. No. 22. ISSN 0038-6308. PMCID PMC9046724. doi:10.1007/s11214-022-00890-7.

[img] PDF - Published Version
Creative Commons Attribution.


Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


We present a review of Anomalous Cosmic Rays (ACRs), including the history of their discovery and recent insights into their acceleration and transport in the heliosphere. We focus on a few selected topics including a discussion of mechanisms of their acceleration, escape from the heliosphere, their effects on the dynamics of the heliosheath, transport in the inner heliosphere, and their solar cycle dependence. A discussion concerning their name is also presented towards the end of the review. We note that much is known about ACRs and perhaps the term Anomalous Cosmic Ray is not particularly descriptive to a non specialist. We suggest that the more-general term: “Heliospheric Energetic Particles”, which is more descriptive, for which ACRs and other energetic particle species of heliospheric origin are subsets, might be more appropriate.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription CentralArticle
Giacalone, J.0000-0002-0850-4233
Florinski, V.0000-0001-5485-2872
Heber, B.0000-0003-0960-5658
Hill, M. E.0000-0002-5674-4936
Kóta, J.0000-0002-3715-0358
Leske, R. A.0000-0002-0156-2414
Rankin, J. S.0000-0002-8111-1444
Additional Information:© The Author(s) 2022. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit Accepted: 4 April 2022. We are grateful to the International Space Science Institute for their organization, hosting, and support of the workshop “The Heliosphere in the Local Interstellar Medium”, made especially challenging due to the coronavirus pandemic. JG acknowledges partial travel support to attend the meeting from USRA/Lunar and Planetary Institute. JG also acknowledges support from NASA grant 18-DRIVE18_2-0029 as part of the NASA/DRIVE program titled “Our Heliospheric Shield”, and from NASA’s Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe (IMAP) under NASA contract 80GSFC19C0027. Open Access funding enabled and organized by Projekt DEAL.
Group:Space Radiation Laboratory
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Universities Space Research AssociationUNSPECIFIED
Lunar and Planetary InstituteUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Particle acceleration · Cosmic rays · Shocks · Cosmic ray transport · Pickup ions · Heliosphere
Issue or Number:4
PubMed Central ID:PMC9046724
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220520-648897000
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Giacalone, J., Fahr, H., Fichtner, H. et al. Anomalous Cosmic Rays and Heliospheric Energetic Particles. Space Sci Rev 218, 22 (2022).
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:114825
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:20 May 2022 21:22
Last Modified:25 May 2022 16:08

Repository Staff Only: item control page