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Submillimetre galaxies in two massive protoclusters at z = 2.24: witnessing the enrichment of extreme starbursts in the outskirts of HAE density peaks

Zhang, Yuheng and Zheng, Xian Zhong and Shi, Dong Dong and Gao, Yu and Dannerbauer, Helmut and An, Fang Xia and Shu, Xinwen and Gao, Zhen-Kai and Wang, Wei-Hao and Wang, Xin and Cai, Zheng and Fan, Xiaohui and Fang, Min and Pan, Zhizheng and Liu, Wenhao and Tan, Qinghua and Qin, Jianbo and Ren, Jian and Qiao, Man and Wen, Run and Liu, Shuang (2022) Submillimetre galaxies in two massive protoclusters at z = 2.24: witnessing the enrichment of extreme starbursts in the outskirts of HAE density peaks. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 512 (4). pp. 4893-4908. ISSN 0035-8711. doi:10.1093/mnras/stac824. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20220525-91603000

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Abstract

Submillimetre galaxies represent a rapid growth phase of both star formation and massive galaxies. Mapping SMGs in galaxy protoclusters provides key insights into where and how these extreme starbursts take place in connections with the assembly of the large-scale structure in the early Universe. We search for SMGs at 850 μm using JCMT/SCUBA-2 in two massive protoclusters at z = 2.24, BOSS1244 and BOSS1542, and detect 43 and 54 sources with S₈₅₀ > 4 mJy at the 4σ level within an effective area of 264 arcmin², respectively. We construct the intrinsic number counts and find that the abundance of SMGs is 2.0 ± 0.3 and 2.1 ± 0.2 times that of the general fields, confirming that BOSS1244 and BOSS1542 contain a higher fraction of dusty galaxies with strongly enhanced star formation. The volume densities of the SMGs are estimated to be ∼15–30 times the average, significantly higher than the overdensity factor (∼6) traced by H α emission-line galaxies (HAEs). More importantly, we discover a prominent offset between the spatial distributions of the two populations in these two protoclusters – SMGs are mostly located around the high-density regions of HAEs, and few are seen inside these regions. This finding may have revealed for the first time the occurrence of violent star formation enhancement in the outskirts of the HAE density peaks, likely driven by the boosting of gas supplies and/or starburst triggering events. Meanwhile, the lack of SMGs inside the most overdense regions at z ∼ 2 implies a transition to the environment disfavouring extreme starbursts.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stac824DOIArticle
https://arxiv.org/abs/2203.09260arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Zhang, Yuheng0000-0001-5757-5719
Zheng, Xian Zhong0000-0003-3728-9912
Shi, Dong Dong0000-0002-3264-819X
Gao, Yu0000-0003-0007-2197
Dannerbauer, Helmut0000-0001-7147-3575
Shu, Xinwen0000-0002-7020-4290
Gao, Zhen-Kai0000-0003-1262-7719
Wang, Wei-Hao0000-0003-2588-1265
Wang, Xin0000-0002-6180-0058
Cai, Zheng0000-0001-8467-6478
Fan, Xiaohui0000-0003-3310-0131
Fang, Min0000-0001-8060-1321
Pan, Zhizheng0000-0001-5662-8217
Qin, Jianbo0000-0002-5179-1039
Ren, Jian0000-0002-5043-2886
Additional Information:© 2022 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model). Accepted 2022 March 19. Received 2022 February 25; in original form 2021 November 26. We are grateful to the anonymous referee in clarifying a number of important points and thus improving this manuscript. This work is supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFA0402703), the National Science Foundation of China (11773076 and 12073078), the Major Science and Technology Project of Qinghai Province (2019-ZJ-A10), the science research grants from the China Manned Space Project with NO. CMS-CSST-2021-A02, CMS-CSST-2021-A04 and CMS-CSST-2021-A07, and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) through a China-Chile Joint Research Fund (CCJRF #1809) administered by the CAS South America Centre for Astronomy (CASSACA). YG acknowledges support by National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFA0402704) and NSFC grant 12033004. HD acknowledges financial support from the Agencia Estatal de Investigación del Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (AEI-MCINN) under grant (La evolución de los cíumulos de galaxias desde el amanecer hasta el mediodía cósmico) with reference (PID2019-105776GB-I00/DOI:10.13039/501100011033) and from the ACIISI, Consejería de Economía, Conocimiento y Empleo del Gobierno de Canarias and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) under grant with reference PROID2020010107. The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope is operated by the East Asian Observatory on behalf of The National Astronomical Observatory of Japan; Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics; the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute; the National Astronomical Research Institute of Thailand; Center for Astronomical Mega-Science (as well as the National Key R&D Program of China with No. 2017YFA0402700). Additional funding support is provided by the Science and Technology Facilities Council of the United Kingdom and participating universities and organizations in the United Kingdom and Canada. Additional funds for the construction of SCUBA-2 were provided by the Canada Foundation for Innovation. DATA AVAILABILITY. The data underlying this article will be shared on reasonable request to the corresponding author.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
National Key Research and Development Program of China2017YFA0402703
National Science Foundation of China11773076
National Science Foundation of China12073078
Major Science and Technology Project of Qinghai Province2019-ZJ-A10
China Manned Space ProjectCMS-CSST-2021-A02
China Manned Space ProjectCMS-CSST-2021-A04
China Manned Space ProjectCMS-CSST-2021-A07
China-Chile Joint Research FundCCJRF 1809
National Key Research and Development Program of China2017YFA0402704
National Science Foundation of China12033004
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)PID2019-105776GB-I00
Canary Islands Research Agency (ACIISI)UNSPECIFIED
European Regional Development FundPROID2020010107
National Astronomical Observatory of JapanUNSPECIFIED
Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA)UNSPECIFIED
Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI)UNSPECIFIED
National Astronomical Research Institute (Thailand)UNSPECIFIED
National Key Research and Development Program of China2017YFA0402700
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Canada Foundation for InnovationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:galaxies: clusters, galaxies: evolution, galaxies: high-redshift, submillimetre: galaxies
Issue or Number:4
DOI:10.1093/mnras/stac824
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220525-91603000
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20220525-91603000
Official Citation:Yuheng Zhang, Xian Zhong Zheng, Dong Dong Shi, Yu Gao, Helmut Dannerbauer, Fang Xia An, Xinwen Shu, Zhen-Kai Gao, Wei-Hao Wang, Xin Wang, Zheng Cai, Xiaohui Fan, Min Fang, Zhizheng Pan, Wenhao Liu, Qinghua Tan, Jianbo Qin, Jian Ren, Man Qiao, Run Wen, Shuang Liu, Submillimetre galaxies in two massive protoclusters at z = 2.24: witnessing the enrichment of extreme starbursts in the outskirts of HAE density peaks, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 512, Issue 4, June 2022, Pages 4893–4908, https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stac824
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:114923
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:01 Jun 2022 17:46
Last Modified:01 Jun 2022 17:46

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