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The ALPINE-ALMA [C II] survey: Investigation of 10 galaxies at z ∼ 4.5 with [O II] and [C II] line emission − ISM properties and [O II]−SFR relation

Vanderhoof, Brittany N. and Faisst, A. L. and Shen, L. and Lemaux, B. C. and Béthermin, M. and Capak, P. L. and Cassata, P. and Le Fèvre, O. and Schaerer, D. and Silverman, J. and Yan, L. and Boquien, M. and Gal, R. and Kartaltepe, J. and Lubin, L. M. and Dessauges-Zavadsky, M. and Fudamoto, Y. and Ginolfi, M. and Hathi, N. P. and Jones, G. C. and Koekemoer, A. M. and Narayanan, D. and Romano, M. and Talia, M. and Vergani, D. and Zamorani, G. (2022) The ALPINE-ALMA [C II] survey: Investigation of 10 galaxies at z ∼ 4.5 with [O II] and [C II] line emission − ISM properties and [O II]−SFR relation. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 511 (1). pp. 1303-1316. ISSN 0035-8711. doi:10.1093/mnras/stac071.

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We present 10 main-sequence ALPINE galaxies (log (M/M_⊙) = 9.2−11.1 and SFR = 23−190 M_⊙ yr⁻¹) at z ∼ 4.5 with optical [O II] measurements from Keck/MOSFIRE spectroscopy and Subaru/MOIRCS narrow-band imaging. This is the largest such multiwavelength sample at these redshifts, combining various measurements in the ultraviolet, optical, and far-infrared including [C II]_(158 μm) line emission and dust continuum from ALMA and H α emission from Spitzer photometry. For the first time, this unique sample allows us to analyse the relation between [O II] and total star-formation rate (SFR) and the interstellar medium (ISM) properties via [O II]/[C II] and [O II]/H α luminosity ratios at z ∼ 4.5. The [O II]−SFR relation at z ∼ 4.5 cannot be described using standard local descriptions, but is consistent with a metal-dependent relation assuming metallicities around 50 per cent solar. To explain the measured dust-corrected luminosity ratios of log(L_[OII]/L_[CII]) ∼ 0.98^(+0.21)_(−0.22) and log(L_[OII]/L_(Hα)) ∼ −0.22^(+0.13)_(−0.15) for our sample, ionization parameters log (U) < −2 and electron densities log(nₑ/[cm⁻³]) ∼ 2.5−3 are required. The former is consistent with galaxies at z ∼ 2−3, however lower than at z > 6. The latter may be slightly higher than expected given the galaxies’ specific SFR. The analysis of this pilot sample suggests that typical log (M/M_⊙) > 9 galaxies at z ∼ 4.5 to have broadly similar ISM properties as their descendants at z ∼ 2 and suggest a strong evolution of ISM properties since the epoch of reionization at z > 6.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper ItemCOSMOS multiwavelength data
Vanderhoof, Brittany N.0000-0002-8163-0172
Faisst, A. L.0000-0002-9382-9832
Shen, L.0000-0001-9495-7759
Lemaux, B. C.0000-0002-1428-7036
Béthermin, M.0000-0002-3915-2015
Capak, P. L.0000-0003-3578-6843
Cassata, P.0000-0002-6716-4400
Le Fèvre, O.0000-0001-5891-2596
Schaerer, D.0000-0001-7144-7182
Silverman, J.0000-0002-0000-6977
Yan, L.0000-0003-1710-9339
Boquien, M.0000-0003-0946-6176
Gal, R.0000-0001-8255-6560
Kartaltepe, J.0000-0001-9187-3605
Lubin, L. M.0000-0003-4249-5315
Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.0000-0003-0348-2917
Fudamoto, Y.0000-0001-7440-8832
Ginolfi, M.0000-0002-9122-1700
Hathi, N. P.0000-0001-6145-5090
Jones, G. C.0000-0002-0267-9024
Koekemoer, A. M.0000-0002-6610-2048
Narayanan, D.0000-0002-7064-4309
Romano, M.0000-0002-9948-3916
Talia, M.0000-0003-4352-2063
Vergani, D.0000-0003-0898-2216
Zamorani, G.0000-0002-2318-301X
Additional Information:© 2022 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model ( Accepted 2022 January 5. Received 2022 January 4; in original form 2021 October 5. We thank Yuichi Harikane for the helpful inputs on running CLOUDY and the anonymous referee for the comments which improved the manuscript. We also thank Behnam Darvish and Nick Scoville for letting us add DC_881725 to their MOSFIRE mask. Support for this work was provided by the National Science Foundation (NSF) through award SOSPA6-018 and SOSPA6-028 from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory(NRAO). We thank Weida Hu for the help in the Subaru/MOIRCS data reduction and analysis. L.S. acknowledge the National Science Foundation of China grant No. 12003030. GCJ acknowledges ERC Advanced Grant 695671 ‘QUENCH’ and support by the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC). This work made use of v2.2.1 of the Binary Population and Spectral Synthesis (BPASS) models as described in Eldridge et al. (2017) and Stanway & Eldridge (2018). This work was supported by the Programme National Cosmology et Galaxies (PNCG) of CNRS/INSU with INP and IN2P3, co-funded by CEA and CNES. This paper uses data obtained with the ALMA Observatory, under Large Program 2017.1.00428.L. ALMA is a partnership of European Southern Observatory (ESO, representing its member states), NSF (USA) and National Institutes of Natural Sciences (Japan), together with National Research Council (Canada), Ministry Of Science and Technology and Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy adn Astrophysics (Taiwan), and Korea Astonomy and Space Science Institute (KASI, Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO, and National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. This work is based on observations and archival data made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. Some of the material presented in this paper is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1908422. MT acknowledges the support from grant PRIN MIUR 2017 20173ML3WW 001. Furthermore, this work is based on data from the W. M. Keck Observatory and the Subaru Telescope. The authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Mauna Kea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. Based on data products from observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under ESO programme ID 179.A-2005 and on data products produced by CALET and the Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit on behalf of the UltraVISTA consortium. Finally, we would also like to recognize the contributions from all of the members of the COSMOS Team who helped in obtaining and reducing the large amount of multiwavelength data that are now publicly available through IRSA at DATA AVAILABILITY. The data underlying this article will be shared on reasonable request to the corresponding author.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
National Radio Astronomy ObservatorySOSPA6-018
National Radio Astronomy ObservatorySOSPA6-028
National Natural Science Foundation of China12003030
European Research Council (ERC)695671
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Programme National Cosmology et Galaxies (PNCG)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules (IN2P3)UNSPECIFIED
Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES)UNSPECIFIED
Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Universita e della Ricerca (MIUR)20173ML3WW 001
Subject Keywords:galaxies: evolution, galaxies: high-redshift, galaxies: ISM
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220525-92272000
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Brittany N Vanderhoof, A L Faisst, L Shen, B C Lemaux, M Béthermin, P L Capak, P Cassata, O Le Fèvre, D Schaerer, J Silverman, L Yan, M Boquien, R Gal, J Kartaltepe, L M Lubin, M Dessauges-Zavadsky, Y Fudamoto, M Ginolfi, N P Hathi, G C Jones, A M Koekemoer, D Narayanan, M Romano, M Talia, D Vergani, G Zamorani, The ALPINE-ALMA [C II] survey: Investigation of 10 galaxies at z ∼ 4.5 with [O II] and [C II] line emission − ISM properties and [O II]−SFR relation, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 511, Issue 1, March 2022, Pages 1303–1316,
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:114929
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:31 May 2022 19:25
Last Modified:31 May 2022 19:25

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