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Progenitor and close-in circumstellar medium of type II supernova 2020fqv from high-cadence photometry and ultra-rapid UV spectroscopy

Tinyanont, Samaporn and Ridden-Harper, R. and Foley, R. J. and Morozova, V. and Kilpatrick, C. D. and Dimitriadis, G. and DeMarchi, L. and Gagliano, A. and Jacobson-Galán, W. V. and Messick, A. and Pierel, J. D. R. and Piro, A. L. and Ramirez-Ruiz, E. and Siebert, M. R. and Chambers, K. C. and Clever, K. E. and Coulter, D. A. and De, K. and Hankins, M. and Hung, T. and Jha, S. W. and Jimenez Angel, C. E. and Jones, D. O. and Kasliwal, M. M. and Lin, C.-C. and Marques-Chaves, R. and Margutti, R. and Moore, A. and Pérez-Fournon, I. and Poidevin, F. and Rest, A. and Shirley, R. and Smith, C. S. and Strasburger, E. and Swift, J. J. and Wainscoat, R. J. and Wang, Q. and Zenati, Y. (2022) Progenitor and close-in circumstellar medium of type II supernova 2020fqv from high-cadence photometry and ultra-rapid UV spectroscopy. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 512 (2). pp. 2777-2797. ISSN 0035-8711. doi:10.1093/mnras/stab2887.

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We present observations of SN 2020fqv, a Virgo-cluster type II core-collapse supernova (CCSN) with a high temporal resolution light curve from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) covering the time of explosion; ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) starting 3.3 d post-explosion; ground-based spectroscopic observations starting 1.1 d post-explosion; along with extensive photometric observations. Massive stars have complicated mass-loss histories leading up to their death as CCSNe, creating circumstellar medium (CSM) with which the SNe interact. Observations during the first few days post-explosion can provide important information about the mass-loss rate during the late stages of stellar evolution. Model fits to the quasi-bolometric light curve of SN 2020fqv reveal  0.23 M_⊙ of CSM confined within  1450 R_⊙ (10¹⁴ cm) from its progenitor star. Early spectra (<4 d post-explosion), both from HST and ground-based observatories, show emission features from high-ionization metal species from the outer, optically thin part of this CSM. We find that the CSM is consistent with an eruption caused by the injection of ∼5 × 10⁴⁶ erg into the stellar envelope ∼300 d pre-explosion, potentially from a nuclear burning instability at the onset of oxygen burning. Light-curve fitting, nebular spectroscopy, and pre-explosion HST imaging consistently point to a red supergiant (RSG) progenitor with M_(ZAMS) ~ 13.5-15 M_⊙, typical for SN II progenitor stars. This finding demonstrates that a typical RSG, like the progenitor of SN 2020fqv, has a complicated mass-loss history immediately before core collapse.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper Itemscript to colourize the single-band pre-explosion HST image ItemSVO Filter Profile Service
Tinyanont, Samaporn0000-0002-1481-4676
Ridden-Harper, R.0000-0003-1724-2885
Foley, R. J.0000-0002-2445-5275
Morozova, V.0000-0002-0674-5930
Kilpatrick, C. D.0000-0002-5740-7747
Dimitriadis, G.0000-0001-9494-179X
DeMarchi, L.0000-0003-4587-2366
Gagliano, A.0000-0003-4906-8447
Jacobson-Galán, W. V.0000-0002-3934-2644
Messick, A.0000-0002-9158-5408
Pierel, J. D. R.0000-0002-2361-7201
Piro, A. L.0000-0001-6806-0673
Ramirez-Ruiz, E.0000-0003-2558-3102
Siebert, M. R.0000-0003-2445-3891
Chambers, K. C.0000-0001-6965-7789
Clever, K. E.0000-0001-8756-1262
Coulter, D. A.0000-0003-4263-2228
De, K.0000-0002-8989-0542
Hankins, M.0000-0001-9315-8437
Hung, T.0000-0002-9878-7889
Jha, S. W.0000-0001-8738-6011
Jimenez Angel, C. E.0000-0003-3100-7718
Jones, D. O.0000-0002-6230-0151
Kasliwal, M. M.0000-0002-5619-4938
Lin, C.-C.0000-0002-7272-5129
Marques-Chaves, R.0000-0001-8442-1846
Margutti, R.0000-0003-4768-7586
Moore, A.0000-0002-2894-6936
Pérez-Fournon, I.0000-0002-2807-6459
Poidevin, F.0000-0002-5391-5568
Rest, A.0000-0002-4410-5387
Shirley, R.0000-0002-1114-0135
Strasburger, E.0000-0002-4930-0093
Swift, J. J.0000-0002-9486-818X
Wainscoat, R. J.0000-0002-1341-0952
Wang, Q.0000-0001-5233-6989
Zenati, Y.0000-0002-0632-8897
Additional Information:© 2021 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model ( Accepted 2021 October 1. Received 2021 October 1; in original form 2021 July 30. We thank Thomas de Jaeger for a discussion on the colour of type II SNe and for providing us some data. The script to colourize the single-band pre-explosion HST image is based on a script written by M. Durbin, which can be found here: This work has made use of the SVO Filter Profile Service ( supported from the Spanish MINECO through grant AYA2017-84089. The UCSC team is supported in part by NASA grant 80NSSC20K0953, NSF grant AST-1815935, the Gordon & Betty Moore Foundation, the Heising-Simons Foundation, and by a fellowship from the David and Lucile Packard Foundation to RJF. MRS is supported by the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship Program Under grant 1842400. DAC acknowledges support from the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under grant DGE1339067. Support for this work was provided by NASA through the NASA Hubble Fellowship grant HF2-51462.001 awarded by the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract NAS5-26555. This work is based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope under programme number GO-15876 and data from programme number GO-5446 obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute. Support for programme GO-15876 was provided by NASA through a grant from STScI, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. Additional support was provided through NASA grants in support of Hubble Space Telescope programmes GO-15889 and GO-16075. AG is supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program under grant no. DGE-1746047. AG also acknowledges funding from the Center for Astrophysical Surveys Fellowship at UIUC/NCSA and the Illinois Distinguished Fellowship. CDK acknowledges support through NASA grants in support of Hubble Space Telescope programme AR-16136. WJ-G is supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program under Grant No. DGE-1842165 and the IDEAS Fellowship Program at Northwestern University. IP-F acknowledges support from the Spanish State Research Agency (AEI) under grant numbers ESP2017-86852-C4-2-R and PID2019-105552RB-C43. FP acknowledges support from the Spanish State Research Agency (AEI) under grant number PID2019-105552RB-C43. QW acknowledges financial support provided by the STScI Director’s Discretionary Fund. This paper includes data collected by the TESS mission. Funding for the TESS mission is provided by the NASA’s Science Mission Directorate. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. This work is based in part on observations obtained at the international Gemini Observatory, a program of NSF’s NOIRLab (programmes GN-2020A-Q-134 and GS-2020A-Q-128), which is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. on behalf of the Gemini Observatory partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), National Research Council (Canada), Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (Argentina), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovações e Comunicações (Brazil), and Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (Republic of Korea). This work was enabled by observations made from the Gemini North and Keck telescopes, located within the Maunakea Science Reserve and adjacent to the summit of Maunakea. The authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Maunakea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are grateful for the privilege of observing the Universe from a place that is unique in both its astronomical quality and its cultural significance. A major upgrade of the Kast spectrograph on the Shane 3 m telescope at Lick Observatory was made possible through generous gifts from the Heising-Simons Foundation as well as William and Marina Kast. Research at Lick Observatory is partially supported by a generous gift from Google. This work makes use of observations from the Las Cumbres Observatory global telescope network following the approved NOIRLab programmes 2020A-0196, 2020A-0334, 2020B-0250, 2020B-0256, 2021A-0135, and 2021A-0239. LCO telescope time was granted by NOIRLab through the Mid-Scale Innovations Program (MSIP). MSIP is funded by NSF. The Liverpool Telescope is operated on the island of La Palma by Liverpool John Moores University in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias with financial support from the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council. This work is based in part on observations obtained with the Samuel Oschin 48-inch Telescope at the Palomar Observatory as part of the Zwicky Transient Facility project. ZTF is supported by the NSF under grant AST-1440341 and a collaboration including Caltech, IPAC, the Weizmann Institute for Science, the Oskar Klein Center at Stockholm University, the University of Maryland, the University of Washington, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron and Humboldt University, Los Alamos National Laboratories, the TANGO Consortium of Taiwan, the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Operations are conducted by the Caltech Optical Observatories (COO), the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), and the University of Washington (UW). This work has made use of data from the Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System (ATLAS) project. The Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System (ATLAS) project is primarily funded to search for near earth asteroids through NASA grants NN12AR55G, 80NSSC18K0284, and 80NSSC18K1575; byproducts of the NEO search include images and catalogs from the survey area. This work was partially funded by Kepler/K2 grant J1944/80NSSC19K0112 and HST GO-15889, and STFC grants ST/T000198/1 and ST/S006109/1. The ATLAS science products have been made possible through the contributions of the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy, the Queen s University Belfast, the Space Telescope Science Institute, the South African Astronomical Observatory, and The Millennium Institute of Astrophysics (MAS), Chile. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys (PS1) and the PS1 public science archive have been made possible through contributions by the Institute for Astronomy, the University of Hawaii, the Pan-STARRS Project Office, the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, Durham University, the University of Edinburgh, the Queen’s University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, the National Central University of Taiwan, STScI, NASA under grant NNX08AR22G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate, NSF grant AST-1238877, the University of Maryland, Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE), the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. Pan-STARRS is a project of the Institute for Astronomy of the University of Hawaii, and is supported by the NASA SSO Near Earth Observation Program under grants 80NSSC18K0971, NNX14AM74G, NNX12AR65G, NNX13AQ47G, NNX08AR22G, 20-YORPD 20_2-0014 and by the State of Hawaii. Palomar Gattini-IR (PGIR) is generously funded by Caltech, Australian National University, the Mt Cuba Foundation, the Heising Simons Foundation, and the Binational Science Foundation. PGIR is a collaborative project among Caltech, Australian National University, University of New South Wales, Columbia University, and the Weizmann Institute of Science. MMK acknowledges generous support from the David and Lucille Packard Foundation. MMK and Eran Ofek acknowledge the US-Israel Bi-national Science Foundation Grant 2016227. MMK and Jeno L Sokoloski acknowledge the Heising-Simons foundation for support via a Scialog fellowship of the Research Corporation. MMK and AMM acknowledge the Mt Cuba foundation. DATA AVAILABILITY. All spectra presented in this work are available via WISEReP. Other data and data analysis scripts can be obtained from the corresponding author upon a reasonable request.
Group:Astronomy Department, Zwicky Transient Facility
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)AYA2017-84089
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Heising-Simons FoundationScialog Award
David and Lucile Packard FoundationUNSPECIFIED
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1842400
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1339067
NASA Hubble FellowshipHF2-51462.001
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1746047
Center for Astrophysical Surveys FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
University of Illinois Urbana-ChampaignUNSPECIFIED
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1842165
Northwestern UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Agencia Estatal de InvestigaciónESP2017-86852-C4-2-R
Agencia Estatal de InvestigaciónPID2019-105552RB-C43
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Gemini PartnershipUNSPECIFIED
William and Marina KastUNSPECIFIED
ZTF partner institutionsUNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/T000198/1
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/S006109/1
NASA20-YORPD 20_2-0014
State of HawaiiUNSPECIFIED
Palomar Gattini-IR collaborationUNSPECIFIED
Binational Science Foundation (USA-Israel)2016227
Mt. Cuba Astronomical FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:stars: massive, stars: mass-loss, supernovae: individual: SN 2020fqv
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220525-92492000
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Samaporn Tinyanont, R Ridden-Harper, R J Foley, V Morozova, C D Kilpatrick, G Dimitriadis, L DeMarchi, A Gagliano, W V Jacobson-Galán, A Messick, J D R Pierel, A L Piro, E Ramirez-Ruiz, M R Siebert, K C Chambers, K E Clever, D A Coulter, K De, M Hankins, T Hung, S W Jha, C E Jimenez Angel, D O Jones, M M Kasliwal, C-C Lin, R Marques-Chaves, R Margutti, A Moore, I Pérez-Fournon, F Poidevin, A Rest, R Shirley, C S Smith, E Strasburger, J J Swift, R J Wainscoat, Q Wang, Y Zenati, Progenitor and close-in circumstellar medium of type II supernova 2020fqv from high-cadence photometry and ultra-rapid UV spectroscopy, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 512, Issue 2, May 2022, Pages 2777–2797,
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:114933
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:31 May 2022 19:32
Last Modified:25 Jul 2022 23:14

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