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Impact of noise transients on low latency gravitational-wave event localization

Macas, Ronaldas and Pooley, Joshua and Nuttall, Laura K. and Davis, Derek and Dyer, Martin J. and Lecoeuche, Yannick and Lyman, Joseph D. and McIver, Jess and Rink, Katherine (2022) Impact of noise transients on low latency gravitational-wave event localization. Physical Review D, 105 (10). Art. No. 103021. ISSN 2470-0010. doi:10.1103/physrevd.105.103021.

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Gravitational-wave (GW) data contains non-Gaussian noise transients called “glitches.” During the third LIGO-Virgo observing run about 24% of all gravitational-wave candidates were in the vicinity of a glitch, while even more events could be affected in future observing runs due to increasing detector sensitivity. This poses a problem since glitches can affect the estimation of GW source parameters, including sky localization, which is crucial to identify an electromagnetic counterpart. This is the first of its kind study that evaluates the importance of relative glitch positioning in time with respect to a GW signal. In this paper we estimate how much sky localization is affected by a nearby glitch in low latency. We injected binary black hole (BBH), binary neutron star (BNS), and neutron star-black hole (NSBH) signals into data containing three different classes of glitches: blips, thunderstorms and fast scatterings. The impact of these glitches was assessed by estimating the number of tile pointings that a telescope would need to search over until the true sky location of an event is observed. We find that blip glitches generally do not affect the localization of our tested GW signals, however in very rare cases of a blip glitch overlap with a BBH or a NSBH signal can cause the true position of the event to lie well outside the 90% computed sky localization, severely compromising electromagnetic follow-up. Thunderstorm glitches have a noticeable impact on BBH and NSBH events, especially if there is no third interferometer. In such cases we find that the electromagnetic follow-up efforts with telescopes as large as 20 deg² field of view (FOV) are affected. Observing BBH and NBSH signals with three-detector network reduces the bias in sky localization caused by thunderstorm glitches, making the bias to affect only small (FOV = 1 deg²) telescopes. BNS events appear to be not affected by thunderstorm glitches. Fast scattering glitches have no impact on the low latency localization of BBH and BNS signals. For NSBH signals observed with two-detector network, the sky localization bias due to fast scattering glitches is significant enough to affect even large (FOV = 20 deg²) telescopes. Observing NSBH signals with three interferometers reduces the bias such that it impacts only small (FOV = 1 deg²) telescopes.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Macas, Ronaldas0000-0002-6096-8297
Pooley, Joshua0000-0001-5447-8964
Nuttall, Laura K.0000-0002-8599-8791
Davis, Derek0000-0001-5620-6751
Dyer, Martin J.0000-0003-3665-5482
Lecoeuche, Yannick0000-0002-9186-7034
Lyman, Joseph D.0000-0002-3464-0642
McIver, Jess0000-0003-0316-1355
Rink, Katherine0000-0002-1494-3494
Alternate Title:Impact of noise transients on low latency gravitational-wave event localisation
Additional Information:© 2022 American Physical Society. (Received 2 February 2022; accepted 12 April 2022; published 19 May 2022) We thank Michael W. Coughlin, Tito Dal Canton, Miriam C. Mueller, Leo P. Singer, Jonathan Thompson, Tom Dent, and members of the LIGO Detector characterization group for valuable input during the preparation of this manuscript. We also thank the anonymous referee for valuable comments which improved the manuscript during review. R. M. is supported by the STFC Grant No. ST/T000325/1. L. K. N. thanks the UKRI Future Leaders Fellowship for support through the Grant No. MR/T01881X/1. J. D. L. acknowledges support from a UK Research and Innovation Fellowship MR/T020784/1. The authors are grateful for computational resources provided by the LIGO Laboratory and supported by National Science Foundation Grants No. PHY-0757058 and No. PHY-0823459. This research has made use of data, software and/or Web tools obtained from the Gravitational Wave Open Science Center (, a service of LIGO Laboratory, the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration. LIGO is funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation. Virgo is funded by the French Centre National de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), the Italian Istituto Nazionale della Fisica Nucleare (INFN) and the Dutch Nikhef, with contributions by Polish and Hungarian institutes. Signal injection and recovery were performed using pycbc [19,42] and lalinference [43]. Skymaps were created and analyzed with bayestar [35], while goto-tile [36] was used for skymap interpretation. Various stages of the post-processing also used gwpy [44], astropy [45], scipy [46], numpy [47], ipython [48], and matplotlib [49]. This document has been assigned LIGO Laboratory document number P2100460.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/T000325/1
UK Research and InnovationMR/T01881X/1
UK Research and InnovationMR/T020784/1
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)UNSPECIFIED
Other Numbering System:
Other Numbering System NameOther Numbering System ID
LIGO DocumentP2100460
Issue or Number:10
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20220601-257744000
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:114991
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:01 Jun 2022 22:21
Last Modified:08 Jun 2022 15:40

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